## Glossary of Thermal Physics

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- How does one convert from fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C)?
- T(F)=(9/5)T(C)+32

fahrenheit = (9/5)Celsius plus 32.

- How does one convert from Celsius to Kelvins (K)?
- T(K) = T(C)+273 (rounded)

- What does the symbol Q stand for in thermal physics?
- Amount of heat is represented by Q.

- What does the symbol c stand for in thermal physics?
- C is the specific heat of a material.

- What is the euqation that connects the amount of heat with a temperature?

In other words, how much heat does a material have with a specific temperature? - Q=mc▲T

Heat (in joules) is mass * specific heat * change in temperature.

- What equation gives us the heat required to change the phase of an object?
- Q=mL

where L is the latent heat of transormation.

- What equation tells us how much an object expands?
- ▲L = α(Li)▲T

change in length = α (coefficient of linear expansion) * initial length * change in temperature.

- What equation gives us the change in volume?
- ▲V = β(Vi)▲T

change in volume = β (coefficient of colume expansion) * initial volume * change in temperature

- Equation to find pressure?
- P = F/A

Pressure = Force/Area

P is measures in pascals (N/m²)

- What is the Ideal Gas Law?
- PV = nRT

Tip: remember by its name: PivNirt.

- Equation for velocity of gas molecules?
- v = sqrrt[(3RT)/M]

velocity = square root of three * R * Temperature / Molecular Mass

- Work is done when volume changes. What is the equation to find work?
- W = P▲V

- If volume is constant, then the energy needed to change the temperature of a certain # of moles is...
- Q = n(Cv)▲T

where Cv is the molar heat capacity at constant volume

- If pressure is constant, then the energy needed to change the temperature of a certain # of moles is...
- Q = n(Cv)▲T

where Cv is the molar heat capacity at constant pressure

- Change in Potential Energy =
- ▲U = Q - W

- How do you find the efficiency of an engine?
- 1) W=Qh-Qc

2) e=W/Qh