Glossary of The Skull
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- genoid tubercle
- on the inside of the front of the mandible; insertion of the genial hyoid that moves in phonation and swallowing.
- mastoid process
- on the temporal bone; a convex protrustion that is the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid. contains air cells or sinuses.
- zygomatic arch
- 2 pieces, one from the zygomatic process and one from the temporal process. the mandible articulates at each process.
- 2; bat-shaped bone that articulates with practically everything inside the head; transversely extends
- Neurocranium bones
- Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
- frontal bone
- 1; in the front, seperated from the parietal bone by the sagittal suture
- 2; back top of skull; seperated from the frontal bone by the coronal suture; both parietals are seperated by the transverse suture; the back of it is seperated from the occipital bone by the lambdoid suture
- 2; on either side of the skull below the parietal and posterior to the frontal; seperated from the parietal by the squamous sutures
- at the base of the skull
- palatine processes
- actually part of the maxilla bone, the anterior 2/3 of the palatine plate.
- occipital condyle
- condyle on the occipital bone, which sits on the first cervical vertebrae, the axis.
- the bump on the base of the posterior skull which articulates with the atlas; aka the external occipital protuberance. (there are two on either side of the foramen magnum.
- horizontal palatine plate
- part of the palatine. hte posterior 1/3 of the plate.
- paranasal sinuses
- 4 Looking from anterior view:
frontal - above the eye sockets
ethmoid - just inferior to that
sphenoidal - posterior and inferior yet
maxillary - either side of the nose, under the eye sockets
- carotid canal
- just anterior and lateral to the occipital condyle; the carotid artery runs through it
- foramen magnum
- gigantic hold in the back of the head; the brain stem/blood vessels go through it. in the occipital bone
- jugular foramen
- still lateral to the occipital condyles, but posterior to the carotid canal
- internal acoustic meatus
- a little anterior to the jugular foramen, but much smaller than the carotid canals which are also anterior to the jugular foramen.
- external acoustic meatus
- aka external auditory meatus; on outside of temporal bone, surrounds the entry to the tympanic canal.
- jaw, below the mouth
- mandibular rami
- extends up posteriorly and superiorly
- mandibular body
- supports the teth and meets the ramus at the angle
- condyloid process
- on the mandible, extends to the head which articulates with the mandibular fossae of temporal bone - TMJ
- coronoid processes
- insertion of the temporalis muscle; extends up right behind the back teeth, where it hides behind the zygomatic arch when the mouth is closed; the insertion of pterygoid muscle
- mandibular foramen
- near the posterior/superior end of the inside of the mandible, just behind the teeth but under the coronoid process; AT the start of the rami. passage of blood vessels/nerves to lower teeth (inject here for numbing)
- mental foramen
- in the front of the jaw; passageway for sensory nerves to the chin
- supra/infraorbital foramen
- supraorbital = actually a notch over the superior eye socket in skull
infraorbital = in the maxilla inferior to the eye socket
Both are for sensory nerves
- optic foramen
- aka optic canal
on the medial side of the eye socket, back in there where its hard to see. actually on the anterior/superior part of the sphenoid bone by the sella turcica.
- foramen rotundum
- on the sphenoid; anterior, on either side of sella turcica.(where the feet would go in the front) very small hole
- foramen ovale
- on the sphenoid; on either side of sella turcica; biggest holes there, very oval-like.
- foramen lacerum
- on the sphenoid, on either side of sella turcica, but barely because it makes the posterior border of the edge of the sphenoid bone next to temporal. not regularly-shaped, kind've lacerated.
- mandibular fossa
- on the temporal bone; articulates with the mandibular condyle to form the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which is condyloid
- lateral/medial pterygoid plates, fossa
- plates are on either side of the fossa, all of which are directly posterior to the last tooth socket. All on the sphenoid bone.
- styloid process
- piece of the temporal bone; very thin and breaks off easily. projects anteriorly and inferiorly. is the origin of the hyoid bone by the pharynx, aids in speech.
- facial bones
2 zygomatic, 2 maxilla, 2 palatine, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 inferior nasal concha; 1 vomer and 1 mandible.
- zygomatic bones
- the lateral surface of the eye socket
- above the mouth and on side of nose
- roof of the pallet of the mouth
- medial border of the eye socket but deeper than the nasal bones, looking at it anteriorly
- superior to the sphenoid, can't see from the front; saddle-shaped
- at the bridge of nose
- inferior nasal concha
- scrolls inside the nose on either side of the vomer; provide eddies of air for better humidification, etc.
- midline of the nasal cavity, lower than the sagittal plate of the ethmoid
- Sutures of the skull
- coronal, sagittal, lambdoidal, squamosal
- coronal suture
- between frontal bone from parietal bone
- sagittal suture
- seperates the two parietal bones
- lambdoidal suture
- seperates the occippital bone from the parietals
- seperates the temporal bones from the parietals
- frontal crest
- crest on the frontal bone
- crista galli
- crest on the ethmoid that droops down to form the cribiform plate
- cribiform plate
- a continuation of the crista galli on the ethmoid; it's perforated for nerves that percieve smell
- sella turcica
- the turkish saddle, anterior superior portion of the sphenoid bone that houses the pituitary gland
- cranial fossae
- anterior = frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
middle = sphenoid, temporal
posterior = temporal, occipital
- anterior cranial fossae
- frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
- middle cranial fossae
- parietal, temporal
- posterior cranial fossae
- occipital, temporal
- petrous ridge
- the hardest bone in the body; on the petrous part, the most massive portion of the temporal bone that protecs the hearing/balance sense organs
- the top of the skull
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