Glossary of The Reformation Era and Scientific Revolution

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John Wycliff
stated that the true head of the church was Jesus, the clergy shouldn't own land or wealth, the Bible alone is final authority
Mary I
"Bloody Mary" tried to restore Catholicism in England. daughter of Henry VIII Marries Philip II
Philip II
king of spain. tries to marry Elizabeth I after first wife dies and then tries to attack England once she refuses
1st to use telescope to study the night sky, experiments with motion of objects (universal laws of physics)
Anne Boleyn
2nd wife of Henry VIII. disliked because she is believe to be a gold digger. Mother of Elizabeth I. beheaded
John Calvin
Calvinism. gives substance to protestant religion.
Martin Luther
Lutheranism. Salvation through faith alone. Bible is final authority. Anyone can be at Priest level.
Jane Seymour
3rd wife of Henry VIII. Son-edward. died during childbirth
Johann Tetzel
Sold indulgences
Catherine of Aragon
1st wife of HenryVIII. daughter-mary. parents were ferdinand and isabelle (kind & queen of spain)
Thomas More
Tycho Brahe
carefully recorded the movements of the planets and stars for many years
Johannes Kepler
master mathematician. made mathematical sense of Brahe's observations. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (planets move in oval patterns, do not always travel at same speed). ideas challenged the church.
Nicolaus Copernicus
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies earth is round, rotates on axis, sun is stationary, earth & other planets move around sun.
150 CE. earth was the center of the universe. ideas were first to be questioned.
Francis Bacon
scientific method
Rene Descartes
mathematics was the perfect model for clear and certain knowledge
Issac Newton
explains & expands words of copernicus, galileo, & kepler. universal gravitation. developed calculus.
lead protestant movement in switzerland. salvation by faith alone. total break from catholic tradition. theocracy
John Knox
puts calvin's ideas to work in scotland.
only adults can decide to be baptized. church & state should be separate. denied local govt. viewed as radicals who threatened society. (later became amish)
Edward VI
became king at age 9. brought further protestant changes to England. son of Henry VIII
Mary Stuart
very catholic. rival to elizabeth (also cousin). overthrown & flees to england where she is beheaded after 20 years of living in palace & plotting against elizabeth.
John Huss
Bible is higher than the Pope. excommunicated in 1415 & burned at stake.
In Praise of Folly poked fun at greedy merchants and priests.
Thomas Moore
Utopia. a truly good society based on reason and mercy. Divorced Henry & Catherine of Aragon and married Henry and Anne Boleyn. burned at the stake by Mary (Catherine of Aragon's daughter)
The institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin. predestination. god directs everything in past, present, future.
In Defense of Seven Sacraments
Henry VIII. dedicated to Pope Leo X. "defender of faith"
Starry Messenger
Galileo. substance of earth & stars. observations.
A Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
shows ideas of Copernicus and Ptolemy (as an attempt to be neutral). church forces galileo to recant many of his statements.
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Issac Newton. Calculus. Universal gravitation. expanded ideas.

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