Glossary of The Reformation Era and Scientific Revolution
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- John Wycliff
- stated that the true head of the church was Jesus, the clergy shouldn't own land or wealth, the Bible alone is final authority
- Mary I
- "Bloody Mary" tried to restore Catholicism in England. daughter of Henry VIII Marries Philip II
- Philip II
- king of spain. tries to marry Elizabeth I after first wife dies and then tries to attack England once she refuses
- 1st to use telescope to study the night sky, experiments with motion of objects (universal laws of physics)
- Anne Boleyn
- 2nd wife of Henry VIII. disliked because she is believe to be a gold digger. Mother of Elizabeth I. beheaded
- John Calvin
- Calvinism. gives substance to protestant religion.
- Martin Luther
- Lutheranism. Salvation through faith alone. Bible is final authority. Anyone can be at Priest level.
- Jane Seymour
- 3rd wife of Henry VIII. Son-edward. died during childbirth
- Johann Tetzel
- Sold indulgences
- Catherine of Aragon
- 1st wife of HenryVIII. daughter-mary. parents were ferdinand and isabelle (kind & queen of spain)
- Thomas More
- Tycho Brahe
- carefully recorded the movements of the planets and stars for many years
- Johannes Kepler
- master mathematician. made mathematical sense of Brahe's observations. Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (planets move in oval patterns, do not always travel at same speed). ideas challenged the church.
- Nicolaus Copernicus
- On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies earth is round, rotates on axis, sun is stationary, earth & other planets move around sun.
- 150 CE. earth was the center of the universe. ideas were first to be questioned.
- Francis Bacon
- scientific method
- Rene Descartes
- mathematics was the perfect model for clear and certain knowledge
- Issac Newton
- explains & expands words of copernicus, galileo, & kepler. universal gravitation. developed calculus.
- lead protestant movement in switzerland. salvation by faith alone. total break from catholic tradition. theocracy
- John Knox
- puts calvin's ideas to work in scotland.
- only adults can decide to be baptized. church & state should be separate. denied local govt. viewed as radicals who threatened society. (later became amish)
- Edward VI
- became king at age 9. brought further protestant changes to England. son of Henry VIII
- Mary Stuart
- very catholic. rival to elizabeth (also cousin). overthrown & flees to england where she is beheaded after 20 years of living in palace & plotting against elizabeth.
- John Huss
- Bible is higher than the Pope. excommunicated in 1415 & burned at stake.
- In Praise of Folly poked fun at greedy merchants and priests.
- Thomas Moore
- Utopia. a truly good society based on reason and mercy. Divorced Henry & Catherine of Aragon and married Henry and Anne Boleyn. burned at the stake by Mary (Catherine of Aragon's daughter)
- The institutes of the Christian Religion
- John Calvin. predestination. god directs everything in past, present, future.
- In Defense of Seven Sacraments
- Henry VIII. dedicated to Pope Leo X. "defender of faith"
- Starry Messenger
- Galileo. substance of earth & stars. observations.
- A Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems
- shows ideas of Copernicus and Ptolemy (as an attempt to be neutral). church forces galileo to recant many of his statements.
- Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
- Issac Newton. Calculus. Universal gravitation. expanded ideas.
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