Glossary of The Reformation: Chapter 1, Section 3
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- Affairs that the Church was involved in during the late Middle Ages:
- a) Popes competed with Italian princes for political power.
b) wars were fought to protect the Papal States
c) Intrigued againstpowerful monarchs who tried to seize control of the church
d) Popes lived lavish lifestyles.
- a fee for a service.
- How did the Church use indulgences to aid with the solution of their financial problems?
- Indulgences bought passage into heaven for one and one's family.
- Johann Tetzel:
- A priest who set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Wittenburg and offered indulgences in exchange for money for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
- Why did Luther challenge Tetzel?
- because Tetzel claimed that by paying him money, the purchasers and their dead relatives were granted passage to heaven.
- What are the 95 Theses?
- 95 statements, written by luther, that argued against the church's unjust rules.
- How did the Chruch respond to Luther's 95 Theses?
- The church tried to make him recant (give up) his views.
- What happened to Luther by 1521?
- Luther was excommunicated from the Church.
- Major teachings of Luther:
- - Salvation is achieved through faith alone.
- The Bible is the sole source of religious truth.
- All Christians have equal access to God.
- Every town must have Bible school.
- Clergy could marry.Priests didn't have special powers.
- Priests didn't have special powers.
- Banned indulgences, confession pilgrimage, and prayers to saints.
- Rejected 5 of the 7 sacraments.
- Emphasized sermons.
- Translated the Bible into the German vernacular.
- Why did people support Lutheranism?
- - National loyalty.
- Viewed as the answer to Church corruption.
- Way of throwing off the rule of the church and the Holy Roman empire.
- Chance to seize church property.
- Peasant Revolt:
- A revolt that began in 1524 that was the end to serfdom and that changed many aspects of harsh life.
- How did Luther respond to the Peasant Revolt?
- He denounced it because of the violence involved.
- Peace of Augsburg:
- All Princes were allowed to determine what religion would be followed in their land.
- What was the name of Calvin's famous book, what was it about, and when was it published?
- 1536, INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS, explained how to organize and rn a Protestant church and discussed religious beliefs.
- What did Calvin reguard as the source of religious truth?
- the Bible.
- What did Luther regard as the source of religious truth?
- The Bible.
- The idea that God has already determined who will gain salvation.
- In what city-state did Calvin establish a theocracy?
- Geneva, Switzerland.
- A government run by church leaders.
- What was life like in Calvin's Geneva?
- emphasis on strict morality, hard work, honesty, (discipline and thrift). People were fined for fighting, swearing, laughing in church, and dancing. $$
- To what countries had Calvanism spread by the late 1500s?
- Germany, France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland.
- French Calvinis (Protestants):
- religions that branched off from Catholicism (or other branches of Catholicism) after the Reformation.
- Led the Calvinists in Scotland:
- John Knox
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