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Glossary of The Language of Medicine Chap 2 Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole (vocab)

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anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simplier substances and release energy.
cell membrane
Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves.
chromosomes
Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain reions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which only contain 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.
cytoplasm
All the material that is outside the nucleus yet contained within the cell membrane
DNA
Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum
Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller proteins pieces. Ribosomes are found in the endoplasmic reticulum.
genes
Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
karyotype
Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
metabolism
The total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
mitochondria
Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy.
nucleus
Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.

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