Glossary of Texas Government - Policy and Politics - Ch.13
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- Ability-to-pay Theory of Taxation
- The approach to government finance that holds that taxes should be based on an individual's financial resources.
- Children's Health Insurance Program
- A federal program designed to provide health insurance to children from low-income families who's parents are not poor enough to qualify for Medicaid.
- Corporation Franchise Tax
- A state tax levy assessed on corporations.
- Employees Retirement System (ERS) Trust Fund
- A pension fund for state employees.
- Excise Tax
- A tax levied on the manufature, transportation, sale, or consumption of a particular item or set of related items.
- Federal Grant-in-aid Program
- Programs through which the national government gives money to state and local governments for expendature in accordance with set standards and conditions.
- Fiscal Year
- Budget year.
- Food Stamp Program
- A federal program that provides vouchers to low-income families and individuals that can be used to purchase food.
- General Fund
- A state treasury account that supports state programs and services without restriction.
- Incremental Model of Budgeting
- A theoretical effort to explain the budget process on the basis of small (incremental) changes in budget categories from one budget period to the next.
- Individualistic Political Culture
- An approach to government and politics that emphasizes private initiative with a minimum of government interference.
- Matching Funds Requirement
- A legislative provision that the national government will provide grant money for a particular activity only on condition that the state or local government involved supply a certian percentage of the total money required for the project or program.
- Pari-mutuel Wagering
- A system for gambling on horse and dog racing.
- The conditional release of convicted offenders from prison to serve the remainder of their sentences in the community under supervision.
- Per Capita
- Per Person.
- Performance-based Budgeting
- A system of budget preparation and evalutation in which policymakers identify specific policy goals, set performance targets for agencies, and measure results.
- Political Culture
- The widely held, deeply rooted political values of a society.
- Progressive Tax
- A levy whose burden weighs more heavily on on persons earning higher incomes than it does on individuals making less money.
- Proportional Tax
- A levy that weighs equally on all persons, regardless of their income.
- An economic slowdown charaterized by declining economic output and rising unemployment.
- Regressive Tax
- A levy whose burden weighs more heavily on low income groups than wealthy taxpayers.
- Sales Tax
- A levy on the retail sale of taxable items.
- Severance Tax
- A tax levied on natural resources at the time they are taken from the land or water.
- Sin Tax
- A levy on an activity that some people consider morally objectional, such as drinking or smoking.
- Tax Elasticity
- The extent to which tax revenues rise as personal income rises.
- Tax Incidence
- The point at which the actual cost of tax falls.
- Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
- A federal program that provides temporary financial assistance and work opportunities to needy families.
- Texas Teacher Retirement System (TRS) Trust Fund
- A pension fund for the state's public school teachers.
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