Glossary of Test 2- Psych
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- What division of the nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord?
- central nervous system
- What are the two division of the peripheral nervous system?
- somatic and autonomic
- Which division of the pns controls senses and motor movements?
- Which division of the peripheral nervous system is related to automatic responses?
- What are the two divisions of the autonomic division?
- sympathetic and parasympathetic
- What could happen if one calls upon their sympathetic nervous system too often?
- death from a psychophysiological disorder
- Who thought of the idea of phrenology?
- What did the idea of phrenology help to conjure?
- localization of function
- What are the 3 things that were discovered during the Franco-Prussian war?
- 1. localization
- What was discovered during the case of Tan and where is it located?
- Broca's area, left hemisphere
- What is Broca's area responsible for?
- language production
- What is the area responsible for understanding language?
- wernicke's area
- What are two areas affected by aphasia?
- wernicke and broca areas
- What does an EEG measure?
- brain electricity
- What is the type of wave that is relaxed, calm, lucid, and unthinking?
- What is the hz for alpha waves?
- 4-8 hz
- What is the wave that promotes deep relaxation and meditation, mental imagery, barely sleeping?
- What is the HZ of BETA waves?
- 14-30 hz
- What are the waves that occur when you are actively processing information, awake, and alert?
- What are the hz of delta waves?
- 1-3 hz
- What are the waves produced during a deep dreamless sleep?
- Why is giving children meds for sleepwalking not a good idea?
- Slow wav sleep and bad for growth hormones
- What type of waves do night terrors and sleep walking occur in?
- What is the band of tissue that connects the left and right hemispheres?
- corpus callosum
- What is the structure that relays information back and forth between the two hemispheres?
- corpus callosum
- What is the function of the cerebellum?
- coordination of motor movement
- What does alcohol impact?
- physically destroys cells in the cerebellum
- Where are the four lobes of the brain located?
- Give locations for the four lobes of the cortex. frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
- 1.frontal-in front
2.next to frontal
- What is function of the frontal lobe?
- planning and decision making
- What lobe in the broca's area and motor strip in?
- What lobe registers what is going on in the body?
- What lobe contains the somatosensory strip?
- What is the function of the temporal lobe?
- hearing and language understanding
- Where is weinke's area located?
- temporal lobe
- What lobe in responsible for visual processing?
- What structure has all senses except smell go through it?
- What is the structure responsible for the four FS?
- What are the four fs of the hypothalamus?
- What is the structure that is respnsible for memory consolidation?
- What structure doesn't develop fully until age 2 or 3?
- What would happen if the hippocampus is knicked for epileptical seizures and why?
- There would be no ability to put short term in long term memory--because interferance with consolidation
- What are the three structures involved in motor movement?
- basal ganglia,cerebellum,frontal lobe
- What disorder has a side effect that impairs basal ganglia?
- What structure operates 24 hours working with breathing, heart rate, blood pressure?
- What are the receivers of a neuron?
- What make neurotransmitters?
- terminal buttons
- What is an increased neural conduction?
- What is a reduced neural conduction?
- What are the two ways a neurotransmitter is removed?
- deactivation-broken down
- What is the NT responsible for eating disorders, depression,OCD,sleep disorders?
- What is the hormone found in turkey, peanut butter, and beans?
- Name two drugs given to people who have a decreased level of serotonin and how they work.
- eravil, prozac--increase serotonin levels by blocking reuptake so more serotonin is available
- What NT is responsible for schizo, Parkinson's disease, movement and reward circuits, and addictions?
- What are formication hallucinations, and who has them?
- delusions and auditory hallucinations-tactile,bugs crawling--schizophrenics
- What is when a thought process gets derailed?
- loose association
- How does dopamine affect schizophrenics?
- 1. drugs that reduce its activity alleviates its symptoms
2.cause side effect that resembles Parkinson's disease because of reduction of neurons producing dopamine
3. L-dopa can reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease because of blood brain barrier
- What is the NT responsible for muscle movement, alzeheimer's disease, and memory?
- What disease blocks ACH?
- What insect bite elevates levels of ACH causing muscle spasms?
- black widow spider
- What did s.american indians put on their arrows to paralyze their victioms?
- curare and ach
- What NT is responsible for depression and powering sns activity?
- What drug effects norepinephrine and what are the side effects?
- Elavil- gain weight
- What NT inhibits neurotransmitters and anxiety?
- Name four drugs that make gaba work effectively and how?
- librax,valium,xanax,librium-increase binding
- What are nature's own opiates or a inner morphine?
- What does the speed of neural conduction depend on?
- depends on distance
- Why would a surgeon split the corpus callosum?
- severe epileptic patient
- What are the 4 characteristic responsibilites and 2 areas of the left hemisphere?
- language,writing,science,logic,wernke and broca areas
- What are the responsibilites of the right hemisphere?
- music,art,fantasy,dance,facial recognition,spatial ability,geometry
- When a regular person stares at a projection on a right side of screen, it goes to left side of brain, what occurs in a split brain patient?
- the info is projected into the left side of brain
- In the blindfold and key experiment, the patient is asked to hold the key in his right hand, what occurs?
- The patient does not know how to explain what hand the key is in because the language area of the brain is in the left hemisphere.
- If a patient is asked to spell mississippi what occurs in the brain?
- The left hemisphere will be active and produce beta waves, while the idle right hemisphere will produce alpha waves.
- What occured during the rat 'plastic' brain experiment/
- A group of rats in alone a inn impoverished cage versus an enriched cage with together- the enriched rats proved to be quicker learners because their number of dendrites increased-allowing cortex to grow!
- What occured during the child with epilepsy dilemma?
- The choices were to let child die or take out a hemisphere. The hemisphere was taken out and the leftover brain picked up some functions of the missing brain.
- What is the start-eating center that contains glucoreceptors?
- What is the satiety center?
- What is if one is 20 percent greater weight over desired?
- What if one is 10 percent greater weight than over desired?
- How do people know if they are obese?
- 1. insurance tables
- How many calories need to be eaten to gain a lb of fat?
- 3500 calories
- What is the least amount of energy burned to keep body going?
- basal metabolic rate
- When are two instances that the basal metabolic rate decreases?
- 1. it is lower in women
2. with age
- What if someone is 500 pounds or heavier?
- morbidly obese
- Name three ways that people deal with obesity?
- lipectomy,drugs,fad diets
- How does the body protect itself during dieting?
- it lowers the basal metabolic rate-so burn fewer calories
- What are 12 guidelines to reduce weight?
- 1. keep honest records
2.environment affects behavior
3.weigh twice a month
4.pre-load with salad,carrots
5.small portion for meal
6.food out of sight-out of mind
7.slow eating rate
8. Dont shop when hungry and use a list
9. dont eat family style
10. Help from family
11. Increase physical activity
12. Read food packages
- What is a nervous loss of appetite?
- anorexia nervousa
- What do people have to weigh in order to be anorexic?
- weigh 85% ot less of expected weight
- What are 3 characteristics of anorexia that the victim feels?
- 1.intense fear of becoming fat
2. distored body image
3. perfectionist with low self esteem
- How is anorexia and bulimia treated?
- 1. cognitive therapy
- What is continuous hunger?
- bulimia nervousa
- What is the perspective that focuses on the role of a particular physical structure or behaviour plays in helping an organism adapt to its environment over time?
- evolutionary perspective
- What is natural selection?
- Useful characteristics that lead to an advantage in adapting to the environment have a better chance of being passed on- Darwin
- What is the science that combines psychology,psychiatry,and neurology with a focus on the role of the nervous system in understanding behavior?
- behavioral neuroscience
- What is that hemisphere receives input from the opposite side of the body?
- contralateral conduction
- What are nerves that carry info to the brain and spinal cord?
- afferent sensory nerves
- What are nerves that carry info from the brain or spinal cord?
- efferent motor nerves
- What system regulates body functioning involuntarily?
- autonomic nervous system
- What are 4 characteristics when the sns kicks in?
- dilation of pupils, HR increases, digestion slows, release of sugar
- What state does the psns return the body to?
- What nerves enter and exit the spinal cord?
- enter back-sensory
- What are interneurons and where are they located?
- CNS- connect neurons and either send info directly to a motor nerve or to the brain for further processing
- What occurs when a sensory message does not have to travel all the way to the brain for processing?
- What gland produces melatonin?
- pineal gland
- What gland is located deep in the center of the brain?
- pineal gland
- What hormone is important in regulating or wake and sleep cycle?
- What do melatonin levels do as we get close to our usual bed time? as daylight approaches?
- 1. bed time melatonin increases
2. day light melatonin decreases
- What organ produces insulin?
- What What diabetes type has the pancreas that does not produce insulin?
- type 1
- WHAT DIABETES TYPE HAS INSULIN PRODUCED, BUT THE BODY CELLS ARE INSENSITIVE TO IT?
- TYPE 2
- What is an organ that is an endocrine gland and key center for survival behaviors?
- What signals the pituitary to release hormones?
- What gland is called the master gland?
- the pituitary gland
- What gland releases somatotropin,thyroid stimulating and acth?
- pituitary gland
- What hormone acts directly on bones and muscles to produce the growth spurt that accompanies puberty?
- What secretes the thyroid stimulating hormone?
- pituitary gland
- What hormone causes the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol to produce glucose?
- What do the adrenal glands secrete to produce glucose in time of stress?
- What does the thyroid secrete?
- What hormone regulates the body's growth and metabolic rate?
- Undersecretion of thyroxine leading to dwarfism
- What disease is characterized by protruding eyes, nervousness,hyperactivity,irritability,and a wild stare?
- graves disease
- What are the side effects of anabolic steroids?
- shrinking testes, cessation of period, weakening of the immune system,severe depression, irritability
- How will a postmenopausal woman treated with estrogen behave?
- like the brain of a younger woman in reading and memory and will increase activation of brain region that stores sounds for speaking
- What secretes epinephrine or norepinephrine and glucocortoids?
- adrenal glands
- What hormones respond to the flight or fight response with the sns?
- epinephrine and norepi
- What occurs when the adrenal cortex is stimulated by acth?
- secretes glucocortoids that produce glucose
- What system keeps the fight or flight arousal up over a longer period of time?
- What relays the neural signals from the dendrites to the axon?
- What stores neutrotransmitters and prior to their release, and are involved in transmitting a chemical and electrical signal from one neuron to the next?
- terminal button
- What are glial cells ANd what are the four functions?
- cells that make ip myelin sheath and remove waste,occupy vacant space,guide neuron migration during brain devlpmnt,insulation
- How many glial cells per neuron?
- Name two diseases related with destroyed myelin sheaths.
- -amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- What is the disease where the immune system attacks the myelin sheaths which harden into scars scleroses?
- multiple sclerosis
- What is the presynaptic membrane?
- membrane on the side that sends the message
- What is the postsynaptic membrane?
- membrane on the receiving side of the message
- What can happen to a signal after it reaches the dendrites of the next neuron?
- 1.excitation-passed on
2.inhibition-less likely to be passed on
- What is the disease that results of death of neurons in the brain that release dopamine and makes it difficult to initiate motor movements?
- parkinson's disease
- Name something that crosses the blood-brain barrier and something that does not?
- What is a biulding block that certain brain neurons use to manufacture dopamine?
- What happens after l-dopa crosses the bb barrier?
- neurons use it to manufacture dopamine
- What is deep brain stimulation?
- implantable electronic device to stimulate the affected brain areas in parkinson's disease
- What nt is responsible for arousal level control, motor movement, reward and punishment pathways, and addiction?
- What are three drugs that dopamine influences the addiction of and explain why.
- amphetamines,cocaine,morphine- all increase the release of dopamine
- What nt plays a role in depression, sleep, weight regulation,suicide,ocd, and aggression?
- Name four kinds of meds that increase serotonin levels?
- celexa,prozac,paxil,and zoloft
- What nt controls brain areas related to attention,learning and memory?
- What is the most widely distributed nt in body that keeps lines of communication between neurons open, helps learning, and engage is transmitting info?
- During the study of the small structure on the temporal lobe where sound is processed, there was a comparison of 25 ppl born deaf and 25 normal hearing ppl. What occured?
- -MRI SCAN the ratio of gray to white matter was higher in deaf ppl compared to hearing controls...due to less mylenization, fewer connections among neurons, and gradual decay of unused axonal fibers-exposure to sound does change the anatomy of the brain
- What is stuttering related to?
- -related to abnormality in the white matter speech areas of left hemisphere-
- In the stutter study- what was concluded of the men that underwent therapy?
- more activation in frontal speech and language regions and temporal areas- the brain had remodeled its circuitry arond the problem
- Who found that split brain allowed the two hemispheres to do different things?
- Sperry and Ganzaniga
- What hemisphere is involved in speech,language, logic, analytical manner?
- What hemisphere adds emotional content to our speech,geometry,recognition,selection,all-encompassing?
- right hemisphere
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