Glossary of Synovial fluid
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- What is synovial fluid, and what are its 3 functions?
- -Clear, viscous fluid in joint space.
-nourish/remove debris from cartilage.
- How would you describe synovial fluid re: its chem composition?
- A dialysate of plasma
- How does synovial fluid compare to plasma?
- -Glu/uric acid levels similar.
-Protein is only 1/3
- What substance makes synovial UNIQUE????
- HYALURONATE - mucopolysaccharide that thickens the fluid.
- What is normal synovial fluid?
- Color: yellow/clear to sl cloudy
Cells: 0-200 WBC/uL; < 25% PMNs
Glucose only 0-10 different from blood glucose.
- What are 5 classifications of Synovial fluid?
- What causes noninflammatory synovial fluid?
- Degenerative Joint Disease
- What are 4 types of Degenerative joint disease?
- 1. Osteoarthritis
4. Traumatic arthritis
- What are 2 causes of inflammatory synovial fluid?
- 1. Immunologic (RA/SLE)
2. Crystal induced
- What 3 things cause septic synovial fluid?
- 1. Bacteria
- What are 2 causes of hemorrhagic synovial fluid?
- 1. Traumatic arthritis
- What is the collection procedure for synovial fluid?
- 1. Use sterile syringe
2. Dispense into tubes for Heme, Micro, Chemistry
3. Note viscosity
- What types of tubes are used for synovial fluid?
- Heme: Na heparin or EDTA
- How is viscosity noted?
- Normal = at least 4 cm long
Inflammatory = less than 4 cm
- What is the normal color of synovial fluid?
- What other types of synovial fluid can be yellow?
- What colors can inflammatory be?
- yellow or bloody
- what color is septic synovial fluid?
- green or white
- what color is hemorrhagic synovial fluid?
- red to brown to xanthochromic
- what color is a faulty tap synovial fluid?
- it has bloody streaks; heterogenous.
- What makes synovial fluid:
- Clear = normal
Cloudy = cells/bacteria/crystals
Milky = cholesterol crystals
- When does synovial fluid clot?
- when it is inflammatory
- What would you use to dilute synovial fluid for a wbc cnt?
- Saline or Phosphate buffer with hyaluronidase.
Because acetic acid disrupts the hyaluronic acid.
- What three methods should be used to examine crystals?
- -Wright's stain
-Compensated polarized microsc.
- What is the function of a polarizer?
- Restricts the bending of light rays at 90" from their path of light source to one plane.
- Where does a polarizer go?
- between the light source and condensor
- where does the analyzer go?
- between the eyepiece and condensor.
- How do the polarizer and analyzer work together?
- 1. When they are at 90' to each other, no light passes; dark field.
2. When crystals present, plane of vibration changes and light passes.
- What is the function of a compensator?
- It retards red light and separates light into slow/fast vibration
- What 5 crystals can be found in synovial fluid?
- 1. Monosodium Urate
2. Calcium Pyrophosphate
- What are the features of MSU crystals?
Yellow when parallel to slow vibration.
- What disease are MSU crystals associated with?
- what disease are calcium pyrophosphate crystals associated with?
- What is pseudogout associated with?
- Degenerative arthritis
- What other tests are done for chemical analysis of synovial fluid?
- GLUCOSE - bacterial infection alters it.
- What are the most common bacteria found in
-16-50 yr olds?
-over 50 yr olds?
- Young: gonococcal arthritis
Old: Staph aureus arthritis
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