Glossary of Surface Processes and Landscapes

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residual soil
soil formed from the rock material beneath the soil
The greater the slop the _____ infiltration
zone of saturation
the part of Earth's surface that is filled with ground water
the process of changiong from a liquid to a gas
water table
the upper surface of the zone of saturation of goround water
the amount of open pore spcae between particles of a material
which has more open pore space sorted sediments or unsorted sediments?
Unsorted sediments have greater porosity
hydroligic cycle
a model used to show the movement and phase changes of water on Earth's surfac: the continuous interchange of water between the atmosphere and Earth's surface
what are the factors that effect deposition?
particle size, paricle shape, particle density, velocity of transporting agents
What are the major agents of erosion?
running water, gravity, glaciers, wind, waves
limestone deposits which grow uo from the ground
the moving of liquid water on Earth's surface
large sheets of rock peel away from surface
what influences stream velocity?
stream or channel shape, gradient, discharge
what is the driving force of erosion?
the part of the regolith that will support plants with roots
What are the properties of sediments eroded by glaciers?
angular, stratched and unsorted
What climate is weathering most pronounced in?
warm and moist climates
the chemical and physical breakdown of tocks at or near earth's surface by weathering agents
what are the poroperties of sediments eroded by winds?
pitted, frosted
the force that pulls objuects toward the center of the Earth
icle-like limestone deposits which grow down from the ceiling
residual sediment
weathered meaterial that is resting on the bed rock from which it gormed
how do streams carry materials?
solution, suspension, saltation
the rate of change from location to location within a field
flood plain
the land between the stream and the step walls of the valley what is usually covered by astream during floods
occurs when carbon dioxide unites chemically with minerals
alluvial fan
a deposit of sediment formed where the velocity of a river slows as it flows out of the mountains onto the flatland
frost action
alternate freezing and thawing of water
water-bearing rock between two non water bearing rocks
What is the most important factor in the weathering process?
the carrying away or transporting of weathered rock materials by water, wind, or ice
all the loose, unconsolidated material at Earth's surface
What are the properties of sediments eroded by running water?
round, smooth
the bend in a river
the falling of liqquid or solid water from clouds, the process by which disolved substnaces come out of solution to form solids
the bouncing of a material along a stream bed
physical weathering
occurs when rocks are cracked, slipt or broken inter smaller pieces called sediments with no change in the rock composition
countor plowing
crops are planted in rows parallel to the contours of land
the manner in which fine sediments of clay, silt and colloids are carried in a stream
the seeping of water into the regolith, where it becomes ground water
ground water
liquid water that enters the regolith by infiltration guyots:
erosional-depositional system
combiines the erosional process, the transporting agents and the process of deposition
What do rates of weathering depend on?
particle sizw, mineral composition, climate,
mass movement
movement of earths materials downslope under the influence of gravity
uranium 238
a radioactive isotope of uranium that is very useful for dating very old rocks
the result of sediments being deposited at an angle to the horizontal
carbon 14
a radioactive isotope of carbon used in dating fossils less than 40,000 years old
large rock deposited by a glacier that is different from the rock type beneath
occurs when oxygen unites chemically with minerals
zone of aeration
the part of Earth's surface above the water table
soil profile
a cross section view of the soil horizons of a given sample
v-shaped valleys
the general shape of valleys carved by streams
rock material deposited by meltwater of a glacier
when water combines chemically with minerals
karst topography
a limestone area pitted with sink holes and caves
chemical weathering
any action that result in c change in the chemical composition of a rock
the ability of water to rise in small openings
the physical wear down of rocks as they rub or bounce against each other
center of a stream
the material carried by an agent of erosion
the top layer of mature soil
u-shaped valleys
valleys carved by glaciers
materials that allow water to pass though
natural bridges
formations created twhen a stream breaks through the wall of two entreached meanders on opposite sides of a ridge
unsorted rock material deposited directly by glaciers
the release of sediments from a n erosional system (sedimentation)
a deposit of sediment at the mouth of a river where the river loses tits carrying power as it enters a quiet body of water
the ability of a regolith to allow water to pass though
the process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere
a stage of evelopment of a river during which side cuttting becomes greater than down cutting and a flood plain forms
oxbow lake
the curved section of river channels that have been abandoned by the river
sediment laden flow
transporting medium with sediments
sink holes
saucershaped holes left on the surface of land when carbonic acid dissolves limestone in the ground
natural levees
broad low ridges along both sides of the stream that form during times of flooding
the manner in which dissolve particles are carried in a stream
angular deposits of broken rocks along the base of a cliff technology: the application of scienctific discoveries to the methods of producing goods or services

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