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Glossary of States of Conciousness

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Define:
Conciousness
An organism's awareness of its own self and surroundings
(Damaslo, 1999)
Define:
Alternate States of Conciousness (ACSs)
Mental states, other than ordinary waking conciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoative drug use, hypnosis, and so on.
Define:
Controlled Processes
Mental activities requiring focused attention that generally interfere with other ongoing activities.
Define:
Automatic Processes
Mental activities requiring minimal attention and having little impact on other activities.
Define:
Circadian Rhythms
Biological changes that occur on a 24-hour cycle, (circa= "about" and dies = "day")
Define:
Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
A stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high- frequency brain waves, paralysis of large muscles, and dreaming.
Define:
Repair/Restoration Theory
Sleep serves a recuperative funtion, allowing organisms to repair or replenish key factors.
Define:
Evolutionary/Circadian Theory
As a part of circadian rythms, sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators.
Define:
Manifest Content
According to Freud, the surface content of a dream, which contains dream symbols that distort and disguise the dream's true meaning.
Define:
Latent Content
The true, unconcious meaning of a dream, according to Freudian dream theory.
Define:
Activation - Synthesis Theory
Hobson's theory that dreams are by-products of random stimulation of brain cells; the brain attempts to combine (or synthesize) this spontaneous activity into coherent patterns, known as dreams.
Define:
Insomnia
Persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening to early.
Define:
Sleep Apnea
Repeated interruption of breathing during sleep because air passages to the lungs are physically blocked or the brain stops activating the diaphragm.
Define:
Narcolepsy
Sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours. (narco = "numbness" and lepsy = "seizure")
Define:
Nightmares
Anxiety-arousing dreams generally occurring near the end of the sleep cycle, during REM sleep.
Define:
Night Terrors
Abrupt awakenings from NREM (non-rapid-eye-movement) sleep accompanied by intense phsiological arousal and feeling of panic.
Define:
Psychoactive Drugs
Chemicals that change concious awareness, mood, or perception.
Define:
Drug Abuse
Drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the drug user or others.
Define:
Addition
Broad term describing a compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity.
Define:
Psychological Dependence
Desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug.
Define:
Physical Dependence
Bodily processes have been so modified by repeated use of a drug that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms.
Define:
Withdrawal
Discomfort and distress, including physical pain and intense cravings, experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs.
Define:
Tolerance
Decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use.
Define:
Depressants
Psychoactive drugs that act on the central nervous system to suppress or slow bodily proccesses.
Define:
Stimulants
Drugs that act on the brain and nervous system to increase their overall activity and general responsiveness.
Define:
Opiates
Drugs derived from opium that function as an analgesic or pain releiver (The word opium comes from the Greek word meaning "juice.")
Define:
Hallucinogens
Drugs that produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations.
Define:
Meditation
A group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an alternate state of conciousness.
Define:
Hypnosis
A trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus.
Name the major five sleep disorders.
1. Insomnia
2. Sleep Apnea
3. Narcolepsy
4. Nightmares
5. Night Terrors
Name the Four Major Categories of Drugs:
1. Depressants
2. Stimulants
3. Opiates
4. Hallucinogens
Name the two theories of sleep:
1. Repair / Restoration Theory
2. Evolutionary / Circadian Theory
Name the three theories of dreaming:
1. Psychoanalytic / psychodynamic view.
2. Biological view.
3. Cognitive view.
Define the dream theory, Psychoanalytic / Psychodynamic view:
Dreams are disguised symbols (manifest vs lantent content) of repressed desires and anxieties.
Define the dream theory,
Biological view:
Random stimulation of brain cells (activation-synthesis hypothesis).
Define the dream theory,
Cognitive view:
Dreams help sift and sort everyday experiences (information processing theory).

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