Glossary of Speaking to Persuade Chapter 15
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- Define Persuasion
- The process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior.
- Motivate with Dissonance:
- Deliberately create dissonance by focusing on something that makes the audience uncomfortable and then offer solutions.
- Motivating with Needs:
- Be aware of the needs of your audience and focus on solutions to solve them.
- Motivate with Fear:
- Arrousing fear creates dissonance. Compeling the audience to take action that will reduce the fear. Ex. quit smoking live longer
- Motivating with Postitive Appeals:
- Describe what good, positive things will happen if they follow your advice4.
- Explain Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
- Theory that humans have 5 levels of needs. The lower-level needs must be met before they can be concerned about the higher-level needs.
- 5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy
- Self-actualization needs
- A learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to something; a like or dislike.
- A sense of what is true or false
- An enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad.
- Proposition of fact
- A claim with which you want your audience to agree.
- Proposition of value
- A claim that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something.
- Proposition of policy
- A claim advocating a specific action or change of policy, procedure, or behavior.
- An audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism.
- The credibility or ethical character of a speaker.
- Using Evidence and Reasoning
- Emotional appeals
- Being perceived as informed, skilled or knowledgeable.
- Being perceived as believable and honest.
- Being perceived as energetic.
- Characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker.
- Material used to support a point or premise.
- The process of drawing a conclusion from evidence.
- Using specific instances or examples to reach a probable general conclusion
- Moving from a general statement or principle to reach a certain specific conclusion.
- Casual Reasoning
- Relating two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others.
- Logical Fallacy
- False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate.
- Casual Fallacy
- Making a faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events.
- Bandwagon fallacy
- Suggesting that because everyone else believes something or does something, it must be valid, accurate or effective.
- Either-or Fallacy
- Oversimplifying an issue as offering only two choices.
- Hasty Generalization
- Reaching a conclusion without adequate supporting evidence.
- Personal Attack
- Attacking irreleveant personal characteristics of someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing the idea itself.
- Red herring
- Using irrelevant facts or information to distract someone from the issue under discussion.
- Appeal to misplaced authority
- Using someone without the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product.
- Non sequitur
- Latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conlusion that does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion.
- Emotional verbal messages
- Use words such as mother, flag and freedom which trigger emotional responses in listeners
- Concrete illustrations
- Using illustrations and descriptions as types of evidence or supporting material.
Ex. loving mother buckles child in car seat
- Nonverbal presentation aids
- Visual aids, pictures, slides videos etc.
- Problem and Solution
- Organization by discussing first a prbblem and then its various solutions
- Cause and Effect
- Organization by discussing a situation and its causes, or a situation and its effects.
- Organization according to objections your listeners may have to your ideas and arguments
- Motivated sequence
- Alan H. Monroe's five-step plan for organizing a persuasive message: attention, need, satisfication, visualization, and action.
- Strategies for persuading a receptive audience
- Identify with your audience.
Emphasize common interests.
Provide a clear objective.
Appropriate emotional appeals.
- Strategies for persuading a neutral audience
- Gain and maintain attention.
Refer to beliefs & concerns.
Show how topic affects them.
- Strategies for persuading unreceptive audiences.
- Don't tell them your are going to try to convince them.
Present strongest points first.
Acknowledge opposing views.
Don't expect a major change in attidues.
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