Glossary of Social Psychology Chapters 1-3 2
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- Spotlight effect
- the belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and hehavior than they really are.
- Illusion of transperancy
- the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
- Self presentation
- the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals.
- What major event sparked immaginitive studies in Social Psych
- World War II
- what drives scientific research (Specifically social psychological research?
- we are interested in predicting and controlling behavior. we like to attribute our behaviors as systematic or predictable.
- Hindsight bias: Reagan/Carter study
- Subjects claimed it was going to be a close election (when it in fact was a landlide) people claimed they knew it was not going to be close.
- Problems w/ common sense: (6)
- 1.) not critically analyzed
2.) not stated under specific conditions
3.) stated ambiguously
4.) influenced by personal agendas
5.) provide false sense of security
6.) people DO NOT changer their beliefs.
- Science is __________________ and is not ___________________
- A set of assumptions and methods designed to predict and explain behavior; NOT A DISCIPLINE
- Schlinker's "Self-presentation"
- we manage the impression that we want to present to others. we portrey ourselves in the matter we want others to see us.
- JODI'S RESEARCH
- Self presentation will lead people to avoid or at least delay medical procedures. particularly stigmatized or evasive ones.
- Jodi's IV's and DV's:
- IV: one of 2 diseases (Stigmatized vs. unstigmatized)
and one of 2 treatments (evasive vs. nonevasive)
DV: One of 4 options (leave now, test now, get # test later or schedule for next week.
- the phenomena around which the research surrounds (love, aggression, embarassment)
- the conceptualization and measurement of the construct. How will you define this abstract state?
- Construct validity (internal)
- How well you eliminate external factors influincing your results. Dependent on accurate operationalization. Trade off is generalizability.
- 3 hallmarks of science:
- 1.) logical- results most logically explain hypothesis
3.) Vulnerable- must be disconfermable.
- Naturalistic observation (Adv/ disadv)
Behavior in natural setting
Cannot make causal relationships and Hawthorne effect
- Correlational (adv/disadv)
Things can be studied which cannot possibly or ethically be manipulated. (gender, f.e)
NO CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP
Lurking variables (reverse)
- External validity is most important in which form of method
- CORRELATIONAL STUDIES
ussually solved by random sampling (the great equilizer)
- Random sampling vs Random assignment
- Random sampling: bringing random participants INTO THE STUDY
Random assignment: randomly assigning subjects to different conditions WITHIN a study.
- Experimental method (Advantage/disadvantage)
- Advantage: Establish Cause and effect.
Generalizability (high on external validity)
Demand characteristics- cues that tell the participant what behavior is expected.
- Cooley- the looking glass self
- Where individuals look to others to define ourselves.
- If asked to compare ourselves to a character in a short story we...
- rememeber that character better than the others in the story (Self-reference effect)
- George Mead's elaboration on Looking glass self
- it is not what others think of us it is what we PERCIEVE others think of us.
- Pen study (self and culture)
- Collectivist take one of the four common pens. Western cultures would more likely take the the unique color pen.
- Studies of predicting events and effect on moods
- found that people were not accurate in attributing why they were feeling the way they were feeling.
- What is the best way to get someone to accurately predict their own behavior?
- Ask them to predict someone elses' behavior.
- Impact bias
- the belief that something is going to have long lasting implications and really in the end is NO big deal. (especially negative events).
- self efficacy leads to
- individuals with Internal locus of control
- feel they are in control of making situations successful and gratifying.
- Research with dogs and electric fence...
- Learned helplessness
- The preception of control is really important give 2 instances where this research has been applied.
- Nursing home study (conneticut) and prisons where violence decreases.
- In group successes people tend to ____________ and in group failures, individuals tend to _____________.
- Overestimate their contribution; underestimate their contribution
- Marital couples and self serving biases
- both couples believe they do more than 50% of the work.
- I cheat on my taxes so what, so does everyone else
- False consensus effect
- I dont litter in fact i pick trash up off the street, no one else does that.
- False uniqueness effect.
- Self serving biases as maladaptive
- Those who blame others for problems are less happy than those that can just admit their mistakes.
- We played well but that other team is really something else
- False modesty
- I failed that exam, i know it. i didnt fail, i am smart after all.
- SOurces of self knowlege (5)
- 1.)reflected appraisals- our preceptions of how others perceive us.
2.)direct feedback- the information we get from others (inflated)
3.)Social comparison- information we gather when comparing ourselves to others
4.)temporal- measuring ones present performance with past performances.
5.)self-preception- making infrences about our traits by what we do and why we do it.
6.)Introspection- Look inside
- Festinger's assumptions of Social comparison
- 1.) people want to know where they stand in comparison to others.
2.) people would like objective standards.
3.) if none available social is OK
4.) people compare themselves to similar others.
- How do people compare themselves in GOOD TIMES and BAD TIMES?
- Good times people make upeard comparisons and say "im going to be there soon".
In bad times people make downward social comparisons and say "it could be worst"
- Breast cancer patients is an example of WHAT PHENOMENA...
- Social comparisons
- 3 types of self schemas
- Actual- those we possess
ideal- those we'd like to posesess
ought to- those we should possess
- Self motivation is debated as being:
- 1.) self enhancing- individuals want to know themselves as good and accept characteristics that make this happen.
2.) self verification- individuals want to know themselves accurately.
- Shrauger belief on self-motivation
- We want self verification
- Neff and Karney's belief on self motivation
- We perfer verification on specific traits and qualities. On a global trait enhancement
- illusion of control and lottery ticket study
- Those who got to pick thier lotto ticket sold it for higher money than those that were randomly assigned a free lotto ticket.
- We interpret new information through existing information (or schemas)
- Research on assimilation (Dartmouth vs Princeton football) and telephone ethnicity study.
- Opposite team viewers saw twice as many aggressive acts from the other team.
black well dressed man is accused of murder when the white man is badly dressed with a knife in his hand.
- Research with behavior conformation (Teachers and growth spurters)
- Those randomly assigned to be "growth spurters" actually did better because teachers believed they did better.
- Research with behavior conformation (men and women over intercom and photo)
- The prettier women were percieved as more talkative, outgoing. MOST IMPORTANTLY those not in the study just listening to the conversation can tell the women is highly likable in the conversation.
- Research on belief perserverance (risky fire fighters)
- Those who were told risky firefighters were better believed it and found reasons when told this was untrue they stuck to the original belief for which they had conjured evidence for.
- illusory correlation (and example)
- Overestimating the correlation between variables.
What happens when you wash your car? it always rains. Does it really?
- Regression to the mean (and example)
- Misunderstanding the statistical tendency to return to the mean after extreme behavior
(Sports illustrated cover jinx)
- Avilability vs Representitiveness heuristic
- Representitiveness heuristic- is the extent to which a person or behavior is representative of the average.
availability heuristic- the tendency to make sense of things with whatever comes to mind.
- tendency to ignore statistical evidence in the face of dramatic case history
(medical disease vs natural disaster)
- base rate fallacy
- Actor-observer bias also known as Fundamental Attribution Error
(hint: "what would you do?"~ City high)
- the inability to see why someone would do something (disposition) and clearly see why we do them (situational).
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