Glossary of Social Psych Ch. 2

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a testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur
an organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena
basic research
research whose goal is to increase understanding of human behavior, often by testin hypotheses based on a theory
applied research
research whose goals are to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical problems
operational definition
the specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable
construct validity
the extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variales they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiemnt manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate
interrater reliability
the degree to which different observers agree on their observations
random sampling
a method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equal chance of being in the study
correlational research
research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the research
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables
a form of research that can demonstrate casual relationships because (1)the experimenter has control over the events that occur and (2)participants are randomly assigned to conditions
random assignment
a method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of bein in any of the conditions
independent variables
in an experiment, the factors experimenters manipulate to see if they affect the dependent variables
dependent variables
in an experiment, the factors experimenters measure to see if they are affected by the independent variables
subject variables
variables that characterize pre-existing differences among participants ina study
main effect
a statistical term indicating the overall effect that an independent variable has on the dependent variable, ignoring all other independent variables
a statistical term indicating the change in the effect of each independent variable as a function of other independent variables
internal validity
the degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment cause the effects obtained on the dependent variables
experimenter expectancy effects
the effects produced when an experimenter's expectataions about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence the participant's responses
external validity
the degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations
mundane realism
the degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world
experimental realism
the degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously
in the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants
accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, act as if he or she is also a participant
a set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects
informed consent
an individual's deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the researcher's description of what will be required during such participation
a disclosure, made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve any negative feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants' involvement

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