Glossary of Social Psych Ch. 10

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prosocial behaviors
actions intended to help others
kinship selection
preferential helping of genetic relatives, so that genes held in common will survive
arousal: cost-reward model
the proposition that people react to emergency situations by acting in the most cost-effective way to reduce the arousal of shock and alarm
motivated by the desire to increase another's welfare
motivated by the desire to increase one's own welfare
empathy-altruism hypothesis
the proposition that emphatic concern for a person in need produces an altruistic motive for helping
negative state relief model
the proposition that people help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness
bystander effect
the effect whereby the presence of others inhibits helping
pluralistic ignorance
the state in which people mistakenly believe that their own thoughts and feelings are different from those of others, even though everyone's behavior is the same
diffusion of responsibility
the belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need
audience inhibition
reluctance to help for fear of making a bad impression on observers
good mood effect
the effect whereby a good mood increases helping behavior
social norm
a general rule of conduct reflecting standards of social approval and disaproval
norm of social responsibility
a moral standard emphsizing that people should help those who need assistance
norm of self-interest
the sense in individualistic cultures that people's attitudes and behaviors are, and should be, highly influenced by their self-interest
threat-to-self-esteem model
the theory that reactions to receiving assistance depend on whether help is perceived as supportive or threatening

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