Glossary of Semeter 2 Chem Final

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the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave
the number of waves that pass a given point per second
the wave's height from origin to a crest
electromagnetic spectrum
spectrum which encompasses all froms of electromagnetic radiation
the miniumum amount of energy that can be gained of lost by and atom
Planck's constant
has a value of 6.626x10 to the -34 Jxs where J is the symbol for joule.
photoelectric effect
photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface
a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
atomic emission spectra
the set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element
ground state
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
de Broglie equation
predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is fundamentally impossibly to know precisely both the velocity and postion of a particle at the same time
atomic orbital
a 3D region around the nucleus called which describes the electron's probable location
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
aufbau principle
states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
Pauli exclusion principle
states that a maxiumum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins
Hund's rule
states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
valence electrons
electrons in the atom's outermost orbitals
periodic law
the statement that there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number
columns on the periodic table
rows on the periodic table
elements that are generally shiny when smooth and clean, solid at room temp, and good conductors of heat and electricity
alkali metals
group 1A elements
alkaline earth metals
group 2A elements
transition metals/ inner transition metals
group B elements
elements that are generally gases or brittle, dull-looking solids. they are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
group 7A elements
noble gases
group 8A elements
elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals
an atom or a bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom.
the relative ability of an elements atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond.
an element or inorganic compound that is found in nature as solid crystals
is a material from which a mineral can be removed at a reasonable cost
forms of an element in the same physical state-solid,liquid, or gas- that have different structures and properties
the strong attraction of a substance to a magnetic field
chemical bond
the force that holds 2 atoms together
a positively charged ion
a negative ion
ionic bond
the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound
an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current
lattice energy
the energy required to separate one mole of the ions of an ionic compound
formula unit
the simplest ratio of the ions represented in an ionic compound
monatomic ion
a one-atom ion
oxidation number
charge of a monatomic ion
polyatomic ions
ions made up of more than one atom
a polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms
metallic bond
the attratcion of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons
a mixure of elements that has metallic properties

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