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Glossary of Science test notecards

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cell wall
outermost layer of a plant cell
cell membrane
regulates what goes in and out of the cell/it is semi-permiable
cytoplasm
jelly-like substance within the cell/holds organelles(ICF)= intercellular fliud
Endoplasmic Reticulum
series of cavities that connects the nucleus to other parts of the cell
Ribosomes
involved in protein synthesis
Golgi Bodies
store protein in vesicles
Mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell(produces enerygy)
Lysosomes
contain digestive enzymes
Nucleus
command center of the cell(the brain)
Selectivly Permiable
see cell membrane
ICF
see cytoplasm
ECF
contains blood plasma and interstical fluid
Hydrophobic tails
fatty structures within the cell membrane and fear water
Hydrophilic heads
structures within the cell membrane that love water
Membrane protein
structures within the cell membrane that allow certain nutrients into the cell (ex.glucose)
ATP
main energy source of the cell/contain 3 phosphates
ADP
whats left after ATP phosphorylates membrane protein/contains 2 phosphates
Active transport
any process that requires ATP
Phosphorylation
transfering a phosphate to another structure
Glycolosis
break down glucose
Kreb's Cycle
a series of steps that produces NADH=electrons
Electron Transport Chain
a chain(made up of protein) that transports electrons to oxygen
Pyruvate
produces by breaking down glucose
Acetyl-CoA
produced by breaking down pyruvate
Energy Cycle
Phosphorylation > Glycolosis >Kreb's Cycle > ETC > Phosphorylation > Glycolosis...
Transcription
making MRNA(single strand of DNA) from DNA(double helix)`
Translation
Protein synthesis= MRNA+riosomes+TRNA+amino acids=protein
Interphase
a step in cell division-1. Prophase 2.Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4.Telophase

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