Glossary of Science Study Guide - Cells

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Something that has 1 cell
Something that has more than 1 cell
Prokaryotic cell
Microscopic; simple; no nucleus

ex. bacteria
Eukaryotic cell
10x larger than prokaryotic; has nucleus; more complex

ex: plants, animals, protists, fungi
Unicellular organism; prokaryotic
Vacuole; lysosome; ribosomes; golgi complex; ER; nucleus; mitochondria
Cell Theory
1. All living things are made up of 1 or more cells;
2. The cell is the basic unit of life in which all the activities of life occur;
3. All cells come from cells that already exist
Robert Hooke
First observed cork cells in 1665
Cell Membrane
Provides support and structure. Helps control what leaves and enters the cell
Gelatin-like structure; gives structure and support
"the brain"; control center of the cell; contains DNA
Stores h2o, food, waste
Powerhouse; breaks food down into energy
makes protein
in plant cell; contains chlorophyll; needed for photosynthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
transports; makes fats
golgi complex
processes and transports materials out of the cell
cleans the cell; digests food, waste, cell parts, invaders
blood, muscle, etc.
heart; skin; stomach, etc.
Organ system
nervous; digestive; etc.
Cells are organized into..
2 or more types of tissues form an
When organs work together they make an
Organ System
Different types of human cells
nerve cells
skin (epithelial) cells
muscle cells
white blood cells
red blood cells
Nerve cells
long; cell branches; receive and deliver messages
Skin (epithelial) cells
close together; flat; protect
Muscle cells
long; can relax and contract
White blood cells
act like the police in the body; help fight disease; defend the body against microorganisms/invaders.
Leukemia: type of cancer -- too many white blood cells
red blood cells
do not have a nucleus; carry oxygen to all parts of the body.

Anemia: occurs when there are too few red blood cells/not enough oxygen
Only plant cells have ...
cell wall, chlorplasts, large vacuole

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