Glossary of Science Ch. 5 2

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What is the shaking or trembling of the crust of the earth?
What is the scientific study of earthquakes?
What is changing the shape of rock due to stress put on it?
What is changing shape, sort of like clay, bends but does not break?
plastic deformation
What is rock stretched until it breaks, then pieces return to unstretched shape?
elastic deformation
What is sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its original shape?
elastic rebound
What is the wave of energy that travels through Earth?
siesmic wave
What is:
-pressure waves
-travels through solids, liquids, and gases
-also called primary waves
-always fastest and 1st to be detected
P wave
What is:
-2nd fastest seismic wave
-stretch rock sideways
-cannot travel through total liquids
-also known as secondary waves
S wave
don't use
don't use
What are the 3 major types of faults, and the earth motion associated with each?
1.normal fault-plates are pulled apart
2.reverse fault-occur cuz of compression
3.strike slip fault- forces break rock and move horizontally
What is a place where a large # of faults are located, can be anywhere?
earthquake zone
What is a wave that travels through Earth's interior?
body wave
What is a wave that travels along the surface and produce motion in upper kilometer of crust?
surface wave
What is an instrument that records seismic waves?
What is the tracing of earthquake motion that is created by seismographs?
What is the point on earth's surface directly above an earthquake's starting point?
How do seismologists find the epicenter of an earthquake?
use seismograph and measure difference in arrival times at P and S waves
What do scientist use to measure the strength of an earthquake?
Richter Scale
What is the point inside earth where earthquakes begin; where rock is shifted?
What is the measure of an earthquake's strength?
What is the degree to which an earthquake is felt by people and the damage it causes?
Could an earthquake have more than one intensity value? Explain.
Yes, it depends on how far away it is from the epicenter, the type of soil, and population of area.
Why is a 6.0 magnitude earthquake much more destructive than a 5.0 magnitue earthquake?
It's 10x stronger
What is the hypothesis that predists that a major quake is more likely to occur along a fault where there has not been activity for a time?
gap hypothesis
What is an area along a fault where strong quakes have occured in the past but few recently?
seismic gap
What is the strength frequency method for predicting earthquakes?
with a decrease in average magnitued the # of quakes in an area appears to increase
What is a measurement of how likely an area is to have damaging quakes in the future?
earthquake hazard
How is an area's earthquake hazard level determined?
by past and present seismic activity
What is a common way of making homes more earthquake resistant?
by securely fastening it to its foundation
Name some items you should store in case of an earthquake? (7)
-nonparishable food
-flashlights with batteries
-1st aid kit
-fire extinguisher
-portable radio
Why is a large earthquake often followed by numerous aftershocks?
deformed rock my cause other rock to move as it returns into position
What is a very large ocean wave caused by earthquakes or volcanoes?
Where do most earthquakes take place?
near edges of tectonic plates
What is a break in Earth's crust where rocks can move?
What fault and boundary seperates?
-normal fault
-divergent boundary
What fault and boundary cause compression (collide)?
-reverse fault
-convergent boundary
What fault and boudary slip past eachother?
-strike slip fault
-transform boudary
What is the weight in the roof, has motion sensors attached to a computer, react to movement?
mass damper
What has sensors that detect building motion, shift weight to counteract movement; in base of house?
active tendon system
What is between floors, counteract push and pull on building?
cross braces
What helps prevent water and gas lines from breaking, cuz they can twist and bend?
flexible pipes
What is a shock absorber that prevents seismic waves from traveling through a building?
base isolator

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