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Glossary of Science- Cells, Anatomy, and Division

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Cell
The structural and functional unit of all living things. It is a very complex entity.
Three major regions of the cell:
The nucleus, the plasma membrane, and the cytoplasm.
Nucleus
Often described as the control center of the cell and is necessary for cell reproduction.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Membranous system of tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm.
Rough ER
Rough and granular- studded with ribosomes, provide an area of storage and transport of the proteins to other cell areas; external face synthesizes phospholipids and etholesterol.
Smooth ER
Smooth or agranular ER- no protein synthesis- related function (a site of steroid and lipid synthesis, lipid metabolism and drug detoxification).
Lysosomes
Various sized membranous sacs containing powerful digestive enzymes; function to digest worn-out cell organelles and foreign substances that enter the cell; since they have the capacity of total cell destruction if ruptured, they are referred to as "suicide sacs of the cell"
Mitochondria
Generally rod shaped- double membrane wall; inner membrand thrown into folds or cristae- contain enzymes that oxidize foodstuffs to produce cellular energy. ATP- Often referred to as "Powerhouses of the cell"
Mitosis
Nuclear division
Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm
Prophase
Chromatin coils and condenses, forming chromosomes
Anaphase
The chromosomes (chromatids) are V-shaped
Metaphase
Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
Telephase
cleavage furrow forms
Ribosomes
Tiny spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein; actual sites of protein synthesis; floating free or attached to a membranous structure (the rough ER) in the Cytoplasm.

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