Glossary of SK1

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Formal testing conducted to
determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria—enables an end user to determine whether or not to accept the system.
Acceptance Testing
A group process that takes large amounts of language data, such as a list developed by brainstorming, and divides it into categories.
Affinity Diagram
Testing of a software product or system
conducted at the developer's site by the end user.
Alpha Testing
An inspection/assessment activity that verifies
compliance with plans, policies, and procedures, and
ensures that resources are conserved. It is a staff
function; it serves as the "eyes and ears" of management.
That part of software testing that
is assisted with software tool(s) that does not require
operator input, analysis, or evaluation.
Automated Testing
Testing conducted at one or more end user sites by the end user of a delivered software product or system.
Beta Testing
Functional testing based on
requirements with no knowledge of the internal program structure or data. Also known as closed-box testing.
Black-box Testing
An integration testing technique that tests the low-level components first using test drivers for those components that have not yet been developed to call the low-level components for test.
Bottom-up Testing
A test data selection technique in which values are chosen to lie along data
extremes. Values include maximum, minimum, just inside/outside boundaries, typical values, and error values.
Boundary Value Analysis
A group process for generating creative and diverse ideas.
A test method satisfying
coverage criteria that requires each decision point at each possible branch to be executed at least once.
Branch Coverage Testing
A design flaw that will result in symptoms
exhibited by some object (the object under test or some other object) when an object is subjected to an
appropriate test.
A tool used to identify possible causes of a problem by representing the relationship between some effect and its possible cause.
Cause-and-Effect Diagram
Fishbone Diagram is also known as ____
Cause-and-Effect Diagram
A testing technique that aids
in selecting, in a systematic way, a high-yield set of test cases that logically relates causes to effects to produce test cases. It has a beneficial side effect in pointing out
incompleteness and ambiguities in sp
Cause-effect Graphing
A form used to record data as it is gathered.
Another term for white-box testing. A.k.a structural testing since "white boxes" are considered opaque and
do not really permit visibility into the code. This is also known as glass-box or open-box testing.
Clear-box Testing
The end user that pays for the product received, and receives the benefit from the use of the product.
A statistical method for distinguishing between common and special cause variation exhibited by processes.
Control Chart
The individual or organization, internal or external to the producing organization, that
receives the product.
Customer (end user)
A measure of the number of
linearly independent paths through a program module.
Cyclomatic Complexity
Consists of the graphical analysis of collections of (sequential) data definitions and reference patterns to determine constraints that can be
placed on data values at various points of executing the source program.
Data Flow Analysis
The act of attempting to determine the cause of the symptoms of malfunctions detected by testing or by frenzied user complaints.
From the producer's
viewpoint: a product requirement that has not been met or a product attribute possessed by a product or a function performed by a product that is not in the statement of requirements that define the product.
From the end user's viewpoint: anything that causes end user dissatisfaction, whether in the statement of requirements or not.
Using defects as data for continuous quality improvement. Defect analysis generally seeks to classify defects into categories and identify possible causes in order to direct process improvement efforts.
Defect Analysis
Ratio of the number of defects to program length (a relative number).
Defect Density
A form of manual static analysis usually performed by the originator. Source code documentation, etc., is visually checked against
requirements and standards.
Desk Checking
The process of evaluating a
program based on execution of that program. Dynamic
analysis approaches rely on executing a piece of software with selected test data.
Dynamic Analysis
Verification or validation performed which executes the system's code.
Dynamic Testing
A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.
A mental mistake made by a programmer that may result in a program fault.
Testing where information about programming style, error-prone language constructs, and other programming knowledge is applied to select test data capable of detecting faults, either a specified class of faults or all possible faults.
Error-based Testing
The process of examining a system or system component to determine the extent to which specified properties are present.
The process of a computer carrying out an
instruction or instructions of a computer.
Executing the program with all possible combinations of values for program variables.
Exhaustive Testing
The inability of a system or system component to perform a required function within specified limits. It may be produced when a fault is encountered.
Testing based on the knowledge of the types of errors made in the past that are likely for the system under test.
Failure-directed Testing
A manifestation of an error in software. A fault, if encountered, may cause a failure.
Testing that employs a test data selection strategy designed to generate test data capable of demonstrating the absence of a set of prespecified faults, typically, frequently occurring faults.
Fault-based Testing
A form of safety analysis that assesses hardware safety to provide failure statistics and sensitivity analyses that indicate the possible effect of critical failures.
Fault Tree Analysis
A diagram showing the sequential steps of a process or of a workflow around a product or service.
A technical review conducted with the end user, including the types of reviews called for in the standards.
Formal Review
Application of test data derived from the specified functional requirements without regard to the final program structure. Also known as black-box testing.
Functional Testing
A consistent measure of software size based on user requirements. Data components include inputs, outputs, etc. Environment characteristics include data communications, performance, reusability, operational ease, etc.

Weight scale:
0 =
Function Points
Another term for failure-directed testing.
Heuristics Testing
A graphical description of individual measured values in a data set that is organized according to the frequency or relative frequency of occurrence. It illustrates the shape of the distribution of individual values in a data set along with information r
A combination of top-down testing combined with bottom-up testing of prioritized or
available components.
Hybrid Testing
Incremental analysis occurs
when (partial) analysis may be performed on an incomplete product to allow early feedback on the development of that product.
Incremental Analysis
Program statements sequence that can never be executed.
Infeasible Path
Products, services, or information needed from suppliers to make a process work.
1) A formal evaluation technique in which software requirements, design, or code are examined in detail by a person or group other than the author to detect faults, violations of development standards, and other problems.
2) A quality improvement p
To install or insert devices or instructions into hardware or software to monitor the operation of a
system or component.
The process of combining software components or hardware components, or both, into an overall system.
An orderly progression of testing in which software components or hardware components, or both, are combined and tested until the entire system has been integrated.
Integration Testing
A shared boundary. An interface might be a hardware component to link two devices, or it might be a portion of storage or registers accessed by two or more computer programs.
Checks the interfaces between
program elements for consistency and adherence to
predefined rules or axioms.
Interface Analysis
Testing that collects timing and processing information during program execution that
may change the behavior of the software from its behavior in a real environment. Usually involves additional code embedded in the software being tested or addition
Intrusive Testing
It is the verification and validation of a software product by an organization that is both technically and managerially separate from the organization responsible for developing the product.
Independent verification and validation (IV&V)
The period that starts when a software product is conceived and ends when the product is no longer available for use. The software life cycle typically includes a requirements phase, design phase, implementation (code) phase, test phase, installation and
Life Cycle
That part of software testing that requires operator input, analysis, or evaluation.
Manual Testing
A value derived by adding several qualities and
dividing the sum by the number of these quantities.
To ascertain or appraise by comparing to a standard; to apply a metric.
1) The act or process of measuring.
2) A figure, extent, or amount obtained by measuring.
A measure of the extent or degree to which a product possesses and exhibits a certain quality, property, or attribute.
A method to determine test set thoroughness by measuring the extent to which a test set can discriminate the program from slight variants of the program.
Mutation Testing
Testing that is transparent to the software under test; i.e., testing that does not change the timing or processing characteristics of the software under test from its behavior in a real environment.
Usually involves additional hardware that collect
Nonintrusive Testing
Qualitative and quantitative
parameters that specify the desired operational capabilities of a system and serve as a basis for determining the operational effectiveness and suitability of a system prior to deployment.
Operational Requirements
Testing performed by the end
user on software in its normal operating environment.
Operational Testing
Products, services, or information supplied to meet end user needs.
Program analysis performed to identify all possible paths through a program, to detect incomplete paths, or to discover portions of the program that are not on any path.
Path Analysis
A test method satisfying coverage criteria that each logical path through the program is tested. Paths through the program often are grouped into a finite set of classes; one path from each class is tested.
Path Coverage Testing
A methodical examination of software work products by the producer's peers to identify defects and areas where changes are needed.
Peer Reviews
Managerial desires and intents concerning either process (intended objectives) or products (desired attributes).
Any deviation from defined standards. Same as defect.
The step-by-step method followed to ensure that standards are met.
The work effort that produces a product. This includes efforts of people and equipment guided by policies, standards, and procedures.
To change a process to make
the process produce a given product faster, more economically, or of higher quality. Such changes may require the product to be changed. The defect rate must be maintained or reduced.
Process Improvement
The output of a process; the work product. There are three useful classes of products: manufactured products (standard and custom), administrative/
information products (invoices, letters, etc.), and service products (physical, intellectual, physiol
To change the statement of requirements that defines a product to make the product more satisfying and attractive to the end user (more competitive). Such changes may add to or delete from the list of attributes and/or the list of functions defining a pr
Product Improvement
The ratio of the output of a process to the input, usually measured in the same units. It is frequently useful to compare the value added to a product by a process to the value of the input resources required (using fair market values for both input and
A program that checks formal proofs of program properties for logical correctness.
Proof Checker
Evaluating requirements or designs at the conceptualization phase, the requirements analysis phase, or design phase by quickly building scaled-down components of the intended system to obtain rapid feedback of analysis and design decisions.
Formal testing, usually conducted by the developer for the end user, to demonstrate that the software meets its specified requirements.
Qualification Testing
A product is a quality product if it is defect free. To the producer a product is a quality product if it meets or conforms to the statement of requirements that defines the product.
This statement is usually shortened to _____ means meets requirem
The set of support activities
(including facilitation, training, measurement, and analysis) needed to provide adequate confidence that processes are established and continuously improved in order to produce products that meet specifications and are
Quality Assurance (QA)
The process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards; and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. It's focus is defect detection and removal. This is a line function, that is, the performance of these tasks is the responsi
Quality Control (QC)
To change a production process so that the rate at which defective products (defects) are produced is reduced. Some process changes may require the product to be changed.
Quality Improvement
An essentially black-box testing approach in which a program is tested by randomly choosing a subset of all possible input values. The distribution may be arbitrary or may attempt to accurately reflect the distribution of inputs in the application enviro
Random Testing
Selective retesting to detect faults introduced during modification of a system or system component, to verify that modifications have not caused unintended adverse effects, or to verify that a modified system or system component still meets its specifie
Regression Testing
The probability of failure-free operation for a specified period.
A formal statement of:
1) an attribute to be possessed by the product or a function to be performed by the product;
2) the performance standard for the attribute or function; or
3) the measuring process to be used in verifying that the
A way to use the diversity and power of a group of people to point out needed improvements in a product or confirm those parts of a product in which improvement is either not desired or not needed. A review is a general work product evaluation technique
A graph of data points in chronological order used to illustrate trends or cycles of the characteristic being measured for the purpose of suggesting an assignable cause rather than random variation.
Run Chart
A graph designed to show whether there is a relationship between two changing factors.
Scatter Plot (correlation diagram)
1) The relationship of characters or a group of characters to their meanings, independent of the manner of their interpretation and use.
2) The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
An inherent, possibly accidental, trait, quality, or property of software (for
example, functionality, performance, attributes, design constraints, number of states, lines of branches).
Software Characteristic
A software characteristic specified or implied by requirements documentation (for example, functionality, performance, attributes, or design constraints).
Software Feature
A computer program used to help develop, test, analyze, or maintain another computer program or its documentation;
e.g.: automated design tools, compilers, test tools, and maintenance tools
Software Tool
The measure used to evaluate products and identify nonconformance. The basis upon which adherence to policies is measured.
Procedures are implemented to ensure that the output of a process is maintained at a desired level.
A test method satisfying coverage criteria that requires each statement be executed at least once.
Statement Coverage Testing
The exhaustive list of requirements that define a product.
NOTE: This should document requirements proposed and rejected (including the reason for the rejection) during the requirements determination process.
Statement of Requirements
Verification performed without executing the system's code.
Static Testing
Also called static analysis.
Static Testing
The use of statistical techniques and tools to measure an ongoing process for change or stability.
Statistical Process Control
This requires that each pair of module invocations be executed at least once.
Structural Coverage
A testing method where the test data is derived solely from the program structure.
Structural Testing
A software component that usually minimally simulates the actions of called components that have not yet been integrated during top-down testing.
An individual or organization that supplies inputs needed to generate a product, service, or information to an end user.
1) The relationship among characters or groups of characters independent of their meanings or the manner of their interpretation and use; 2) the structure of expressions in a language; and 3) the rules governing the structure of the language.
A collection of people, machines, and methods organized to accomplish a set of specified functions.
Another name for prototyping.
System Simulation
The process of testing an integrated hardware and software system to verify that the system meets its specified requirements.
System Testing
A review that refers to content of the technical material being reviewed.
Technical Review
1) An environment that contains the integral hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements needed to conduct a test of a logically or physically separate component.
2) A suite of test programs used in conducting
Test Bed
The definition of test case differs from company to company, engineer to engineer, and even project to project. A test case usually includes an identified set of information about observable states, conditions, events, and data, including inputs and expe
Test Case
The development of anything required to conduct testing. This may include test requirements (objectives), strategies, processes, plans, software, procedures, cases, documentation, etc.
Test Development
Another term for test harness.
Test Executive
The formal or informal procedure that will be followed to execute a test. This is usually a written document that allows others to execute the test with a minimum of training.
Test Procedure
A software tool that enables the testing of software components that links test capabilities to perform specific tests, accept program inputs, simulate missing components, compare actual outputs with expected outputs to determine correctness, and report
Test Harness
An identified set of software features to be measured under specified conditions by comparing actual behavior with the required behavior described in the software documentation.
Test Objective
A formal or informal plan to be followed to assure the controlled testing of the product under test.
Test Plan
Any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system to determine that it meets its required results. The process of exercising or
evaluating a system or system component by manual or automated means to verify that it s
An integration testing technique that tests the high-level components first using stubs for lower-level called components that have not yet been integrated and that stimulate the required actions of those components.
Top-down Testing
The testing done to show whether a unit (the smallest piece of software that can be independently compiled or assembled, loaded, and tested) satisfies its functional specification or its implemented structure matches the intended design structure.
Unit Testing
The end user that actually uses the product received.
The process of evaluating software to determine compliance with specified requirements.
The process of evaluating the products of a given software development activity to determine correctness and consistency with respect to the products and standards provided as input to that activity.
Usually, a step-by-step simulation of the execution of a procedure, as when walking through code, line by line, with an imagined set of inputs. The term has been extended to the review of material that is not procedural, such as data descriptions, refere
Testing approaches that examine the program structure and derive test data from the program logic.
White-box Testing

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