Glossary of Russian Revolution 1

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•peasants - tied to land they farmed on
•form of slavery
•ended with Emancipation of 1861
•locally elected governments with responsibility of :
*maintaining infrastructure
*handling of social services & peasant complaints
•introduced as part of political reform of Alexander II's Great Reforms
Elementary School Statute 1864
•construction of primary schools in Russia
•funding left up to Zemstvos
•part of Alexander II's Great Reforms
University Statute 1863
•reoragnised uni's into effective self-governing corporations, with considerable freedom for both faculty & students
•part of Alexander II's Great Reforms
Judiciary Statute 1864
•overhauled Russian court system
•introduced new court system:
*independent jury
*generally more just
*public legal proceedings
*establishment of educated legal profession
•part of Alexander II's Great Reforms
Universal Military Training Act 1874
•established conscription across all classes
•called for technilogical improvement
•probably a reason why Alexander II ended serfdom - need for soldiers
•part of Alexander II's Great Reforms
Temporary Regulations 1865
•set of laws abandoning censorship of journals (PRECENSORSHIP) b4 publication
•part of Alexander II's Great Reforms
Autocracy Manifesto 1881
•issued by Alexander III
•reaffirmed the principles of autocracy
•countered & reversed Alexander II's Great Reforms
•repression, inability to compromise
Scientific Socialism
•brand of socialism as explicated in Marx's Communist Manifesto
•offered scientific (logical) interpretation of history
•argued that socialism would arise from the internal inconsistencies in capitalism
Communist Manifesto - 1848
•Marx & Engels
•short document describing scientific socialism
•argued for inevitability in history
Crisis of Overproduction - turn of 20th C.
•a common international crisis arising from capitalism
•urban overcrowding, low wages, poor working conditions, manipulation of workers
•led to larger factories, larger assemblages of workers, & a larger crisis till workers united 2 overthrow capitalist regime
•"the masses"
•in marxist theory they were the working masses
•in Russia, the agrarian peasant masses
•Marx believed the proletariat would take control of the gov. & form a workers paradise
•"upper-middle class capitalists" in Marxist theory
•professionals, shopkeepers & business owners who took control of Europe from the landlords, thus creating LIBERAL DEMOCRACY and CAPITALISM
Utopian Socialists
•socialists content with establishing small, individual communities of people working together in a harmonious commune
•rejected the necessity of getting involved in politics and overthrowing governments violently
•those who followed Marx's orthodox theory as described in 'Communist Manifesto'
•called for violent overthrow of government & international workers' union
•socialists in Russia who saw the millions of peasant farmers & peasants as the real proletarian population
•precursors to the modern SOCIAL DEMOCRATS in wstn Europe
•believed in the symbolic importance of Marxsm - essentials of higher wages, workers rights, proper working conditions
•BUT believed that it was possible & preferable to work within the governing system
•Russian 4 'minority' but they were a majority up till Feb Revo of 1917
•diff between M's and B's: Men's willing to use a wait-and-see approach regarding Prov Gov, and wanted commy membership 2 be available to any1 interested
•Led by Lenin & Trotsky
•leftest of the socialist parties
•called 4 the violent overthrow of the government
•preferred 2 see a commy party of only professional revolutionaries dedicated to creation socialism
•elite intellectuals of Russian society
•very active during Nicholas II's reign in cultural, literary and political matters,
•by turn of century, became more left, believing in Marxist idealogy and pan-Slavic internationalism
•notoriously lazy

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