Glossary of Roseola, 5th disease, coxsackie
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- What virus causes roseola? What family does this virus belong to?
- *human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6)
- What is the clinical presentation of roseola?
- *rapid onset of high fever and red rash which resolves in 3-5 days
*many cases may be asymptomatic
- What is the structure of the roseola virion and genome?
- *icosahedral capsid with an envelope
*genome is dsDNA
- What complications often arise from reactivation of latent roseola?
- In fact, there is no pathogenesis associated with reactivation of the latent form.
- How is roseola transmitted? Where does the initial infection and replication occur?
- *it is transmitted by salivary droplets, so close contact is required
*initial infection and replication is in the oropharynx
- How common is infection with roseola?
- Nearly universal - the vast majority of infants are seropositive by 13 months, though most primary infections are subclinical or asymptomatic.
- How is roseola treated? What prevention is available?
- Treatment is usually unwarranted, but ganciclovir or acyclovir can be used in immunosuppressed patients. There is no vaccine.
- What is the causative agent of 5th disease? What is the structure of the virion and genome of this virus?
- *parvovirus B19
*naked icosahedral capsid surrounding one molecule of (+) or (-) ssDNA
- Where does the virus that causes 5th disease replicate? What does its replication depend on?
- It replicates in the nucleus and must use the host cell's machinery...for this reason, viral replication occurs only when the host cell is in S phase.
- What is the childhood presentation of 5th disease? What symptoms might adults show? What happens with in utero infection?
- *peds have characteristic rash on face (and possibly trunk) and low-grade fever
*adults may have arthalgia due to deposition of Ag-Ab complexes following flu-like illness
*in utero infections may cause spontaneous aboortion, though surving fetuses are usually unaffected
- What population of patients are at risk for serious disease with infection by the virus that causes 5th disease? What condition is likely to occur?
- Parvovirus B19 can cause an aplastic crisis in patients with hemolytic disorders.
- The virus that causes 5th disease is specifically cytotoxic to what cells?
- Erythropoetic cells in the bone marrow, fetal heart and liver.
- How is the virus that causes 5th disease spread?
- Respiratory droplets.
- What family does coxsackie virus belog to? how many serogroups and serotypes of this virus exist?
*30 serotypes divided between 2 serogroups
- Which serogroup of coxsackie virus generally causes more severe disease?
- *infections with serogroup B are more serious than those with serogroup A
- What is the viral and genomic structure of the coxsackie virus? Where in the host celll does this virus replicate?
- *naked, icosahedral capsid
*genome is one mole cule of (+) ssRNA
*viral replication occurs in the cytoplasm
- How is coxsackie virus transmitted?
- It can be transmitted by either the fecal-oral or repiratory route.
- What are some of the clinical presentations of infection with serogroup A of coxsackie virus?
*hand, foot and mouth disease
*aseptic meningitis (typically mild)
*usually less severe than group B
- What are some of the clinical presentations of infection with serogroup B coxsackie virus?
*respiratory or cardiac disease in neonates
*typically more severe than group A
- With what chronic disease has coxsackie virus been associated?
- Juvenile (type 1) diabetes mellitus.
- How does infection with coxsackie virus affect the development of immunity to other agents?
- Infection with coxsackie virus can interfere with the development of antibodies to other picornaviruses, most notably polio.
- What is the difference between a serotype and a serogroup?
- *members of a serotype will be neutrallized by the same antibody
*members of a serogroup will react to, but not be neutralized bby, the same antibody
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