Glossary of Rickettsiae, Chlamydiae, and related
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- What are the Rickettsiae and chlamydiae; three characteristics?
- 1. Obligately intracellular
2. Can't grow on artificial media;
3. Between bacteria and viruses.
- What type of symptoms are seen in Nongon urethritis?
- It's often asymptomatic.
Females MAYBE white scanty discharge.
- What is used to treat
-Rickettsia, Coxiella, Orientia?
-Chlamydia, Ehrlichia, Bartonel?
- 1. Erithromycin/tetracycline
- What 4 lab methods are used to diagnose Rickettsiae/Chlamydiae?
- 1. Serology (most common) especially IFA!
2. Molecular methods
3. Tissue culture
- What three infections does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?
- 1. Genital tract infections
3. Lymphaogranuloma venereum
- What type of development do the Chlamydiae go through?
- 3-cycle: Elementary body, intermediate body, and reticulate body.
- Which stage of development is the infectious one?
- What species causes the well-known Chlamydia?
- Chlamydia trachomatis
- What does Chlamydia trachomatis cause in adults?
- Nongonococcal urethritis, an STD genital tract infection.
- What 3 side effects does PID cause in females?
- -Ectopic pregnancy
-Premature birth induced
- What is a severe infection Chlamydia especially causes in women?
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- What does C. trachomatis cause in infants? What else can it develop into?
- Inclusion conjunctivitis; can progress to neonatal meningitis.
- What 4 organisms cause neonatal meningitis?
- 1. Strep grp B
2. C. trachomatis
3. Haemoph. type B
4. Chyrseobact. meningosept.
- What is Trachoma?
- chronic conjunctivitis where the cornea sloughs off from eyelashes scraping.
- What else does C. trachomatis cause?
- Lymphogranuloma venereum.
- what is lymphogran venereum?
- an STD that causes genital lesions, inguinal bubos.
- What 3 ways is C. trachomatis diagnosed in lab?
- 1. Cell/tissue culture (gold standard).
2. Immunological (DFA/EIA)
3. Probes/amplif. techniques
- What causes TWAR?
- Chlamydia pneumonia.
- what is TWAR?
- Taiwan acute respiratory
- What is TWAR possibly associated with?
- 1. atherosclerosis
2. Alzheimer's disease
3. Chronic autoimmune diseases like MS.
- What does Chlamydia psittaci cause?
- Psittacosis/Ornithosis - zoonotic lung infection.
- What type of infection is Psittacosis?
- Zoonotic in humans because its a disease of birds.
- What are the 4 Rickettsiaceae genera?
- 1. Rickettsia
- How are Rickettsiaceae usually transmitted?
- Via arthroporids
- What 4 symptoms do Rickettsia and Orientia infections have?
- 1. Lesions at the bite site
- -Primarily what infection is associated with Rickettsia?
-What species causes it?
- Rocky mountain spotted fever - caused by R. rickettsii
- -Where is RMSF found?
-What transmits it?
-What are its hosts?
-Therefore what type of inf.?
- -In the SouthEast of U.S.
-Ticks, dogs, rodents, humans.
- How many Rickettsia sp are there?
- 18 - the 17 others cause milder infections not in the U.S.
- What are the 2 groups of Rickettsia/Orentia?
- 1. Spotted fever group
2. Typhus group
- What are the 3 types of Typhus caused by the typhus group?
- 1. Epidemic (louse-borne)
2. Endemic (murine)
- What organism causes:
- Epi = Rickettsia prowazeki
End = Rickettsia typhi
Scrb = Orientia tstusugamushi
- What vector transmits R. typhi, endemic typhi?
- RAT FLEAS
- What transmits scrub typhi?
- What symptoms are associated with Endemic/Epidemic typhus?
- -Same as RMSF
-Rash on trunk
- What vector transmits Ehrlichia and Anaplasma?
- What 2 diseases are caused by Ehrlichia and Anaplasma?
- 1. Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis
2. Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis
- What is the geographical distribution of Ehrlichiosis?
- same as lyme's disease
- What are 3 types of symptoms of Ehrlichiosis?
- 1. Fever/myalgia/headache
2. Rash in HME
3. Critical septicemia
- What are the 4 lab findings in Ehrlichiosis?
- 1. Leukopenia
3. WBC inclusions - morulae
4. Serological/PCR test results
- What type of testing is used to confirm Ehrlichiosis?
- Paired sera - during infection and convalescent.
- What causes Q fever?
What is Q fever?
How is it transmitted?
- -Coxiella burnetii
-A febrile disease which involves the lungs.
-Aerosol transm. from livestock.
- What is Coxiella burnetii diagnosed with?
- Immunofluorescent antibody
- Why do we even care about Coxiella burnetii?
- Bioterrorism - it is a category B agent; moderately easy to disseminate.
- What last group of the Rickettsiaceae is stuck there?
- What is funny about Bartonella?
- -Not a Rickettsiaceae
-Not obligately intracellular
- What are the growth characteristics of Bartonella?
- Fastidious organism that grows on CA; Short GNB, oxidase negative.
- what are the 2 species of Bartonella? What infection does each cause?
- 1. Bartonella quintana - Trench fever
2. Bartonella henselae - cat scratch fever
- What vector transmits Trench fever? What symptoms does it cause?
- -Body lice
-Can cause endocarditis.
- What is the natural habitat of Bartonella henselae?
What symptoms does it cause?
- Cats and Cat fleas.
Lesions at scratches, lymphadenopathy, systemic inf.
- How are Bartonella species diagnosied?
- IFA or EIA
- What 2 STDs exhibit Urethritis, Cervicitis, or PID (if untreated)?
- In whom can Chlamydia trachomatis cause infections?
- -Males (few though)
- -What do Infants get from Chlamydia infection?
-How can it be prevented?
- -Inclusion conjunctivitis - -Administer antimicrobial eye drops as prophylactic treatment.
- What can inclusn conjunctivitis potentially develop into?
- Neonatal pneumonia
- What is the world leading cause of blindness?
- What's trachoma again?
- Chronic conjunctivitis.
- What 2 STDs does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?
- -Nongon urethritis
- What causes lymphogran. venereum?
- A Rare serotype of C. trachomatis
- What is the method of choice for diagnosing chlamydia?
- Cell culture - but it is not practical for routine lab use b/c it takes too long.
- What is the specimen of choice for diagnosing chlamydia?
What else can be used?
- -A urethral swab - w/out cotton, wood shafts, lubricant.
-Can use 1st voided urine for molecular testing
- What is the suggested diagnostic approach for clinicians for ehrlichiosis?
- 1. If Patient has been exposed to ticks and exhibits symptoms.
2. Order peripheral blood smear, CBC, hepatic liver enzymes.
3. Order acute IFA andPCR
4. Empirically treat with doxycycline
5. Order 2-3 wk later convalescant IFA
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