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Glossary of Respiratory Physiology

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C
conc. of gas in blood
F
Fracional conc. in dry gas
P
Partial pressure
Q
volume of blood
Q dot
volume of blood per unit time
R
Respiratory exchange ratio
S
Saturation of Hemoglobin
V
volume of gas
V dot
Volume of gas per unit time
A
Alveolar
B
Barometric
D
Dead Space
E
Expired
I
inspired
L
lung
T
Tidal
c'
end-capillary
v with a - on it
mixed venous
Normal tidal volume
500 ml
normal total ventalation
7,500 ml/min
normal aveolar gas
3,000 ml
normal pulmonary capillary blood
70ml
normal pulamanary blood flow
5,000 ml/min
normal alveolar ventilation
5,250 ml/min
normal frequency of respirations
15 per minute
Normal amount of anatomical dead space in respiratory system
150 ml

fill in the normal values

values above
two conditions under which volumes are measured
Static- no flow
Dynamic- flow
Name the four standard lung volumes
1. Tidal volume (VT)
2. Inspriatory reserve volume(IRV)
3. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
4. Residual volume (RV)
Residual volume
volume of air left in lungs after full expiration,, in males normal is approx. 1.5L
Tidal volume
volume of air taken in and exhaled, normal approx. 500ml per breath
Inspiratory reserve volume
volume air that can be inspired after a normal breath has already been taken
expiratory reserve volume
volume of air that can be exhaled after normal expiration
Inspiratory capacity
IC=VT+IRV
Max air able to inhale during normal resting expiration
males approx.3.5L
Functional residual capacity
FRC= RV+ERV
vol of air left in lungs after normal expiration
Vital capacity
VC= ERV+VT+IRV
volume of air that can be expired from the lungs after maximal inspiration
Total lung capacity
TLC= RV+ERV+VT+IRV
volume of air in the lungsat the end of maximal inspiration

what values are being measured in these areas?

above
Name two ways that the residual volume can be measured?`
1. Gas dilution
eg. helium- has to mix to read accuratly
2. Plethysomgraphy-
thick of a phone booth-
accounts all gases by measurment of pressure.
Graham's law
the rate that any two gases diffuse is inversly proportional the square root of their molecular weight.
Ideal gas law
PV=nRT
where
p=pressure
v=volume
n=number of moles of gas
T=temp in Kelvin
R=ideal gas constant
BTPS
body temperature, pressure, and saturated...Actual lung volumes are always expressed at BTPS
STPD
standard temp, pressure, dry..... used when measuring gas exchange in metabolism,,, such as O2 consumption to CO2 elimination.
ATPS
Ambient temperature, pressure, saturated....
What is Graham's equation

notice the inversion of the values
Henry's law
this law describes how much gas is dissolved in a liquid, relative to the pressure of the gas around the liquid.
C = P x S
C= content of gas in liquid phase
P= Partial pressure of gas in air phase
S= solubility of gas in liquid phase
Vapor pressure
Will exert a pressure in a gas mixture that is proportional to the temperature. Normal is 47 mmHg. Water vapor is important b/c it influences the partial pressure of oxygen as air moves into the lungs from the environment.
Dalton's law of Partial Pressure
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of all the partial pressures.
The pressure exerted by an individual gas is directly proportional to its fractional concentration in the mixture. DRY CONDITIONS
What is the diffusion constant?

It is used to determine the diffusion of a gas across the aveolar wall.
Explain the two resistences O2 has trying to enter an RBC.
1. the resistence of diffusion across the aveolar and plasma membrane
2. the resistence of the O2 to bind with the hemoglobin.

What is this diagram explaining?
Notice it says partial pressure... this demonstrates that the nitrogen is perfussion limited b/c the partial pressure of nitrogen in the air of the aveoli is high, and its diffusion across the aveolar membrane is fast and unimpeded. In contrast, the partial pressure of CO in the lungs is low, and its perfusion into the blood is slower and lower.

What is this figure showing?

Notice the increased time nessesary to obtain saturation (partial pressure saturation)in the capillary
What is diffusion capacity?

Diffusion capacity is a measument of the ability of respiratory memebranes to permit transport of gases. Think - thickness and permiability
Name the 5 muscles that work during inspiration?
1.diaphram
2. SCM
3. Scalines
4. External intercostals
5. Anterior Serrati
What muscles are used for expiration?
1. Abdominal rectus
2. Internal intercostals
under resting potential however, no muscle energy is used, it is the built up potential energy that allows for the release (from inspiration)
What is hysteresis?

Hysteresis is the cause for the insp/exp curves to be different above. Think of how a new balloon and compare it to that of a balloon after it has been inflate numerous times. Hysteresis is simply the non-equal pressure release caused by viscosity steal by the friction of aveolar inflation on one another. Slows down the release of air. Term Aveolar recruitment

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