Glossary of Rand - Human Microflora
Other Decks By This User
- What is the most common microbe found in the mature female vagina?
- This type of exotoxins cause the skin blisters of "scalded skin syndrome".
- This type of agar is used to isolate potential skin pathogens.
- This is a causative agent of Hansen's disease.
- Mycobacterium leprae
- This is the causative agent of necrotizing fascitis.
- Streptococcus pyogenes
- This is the causative agent of dandruff.
- This is the causative agent of tooth decay.
- Streptococcus mutans
- These are enlarged lymph nodes characteristic of a Yersinia pestis infection.
- Deer ticks are vectors of _______ which causes this disease.
- Borrelia, Lyme disease.
- This group of obligate intracellular parasites cause human typhus fever.
- Microbes that cause bubonic plague are transferred to humans by these arthropods.
- Hemorrhagic diarreah is caused by a virulent strain of this microbe.
- E. coli
- Giardia and Entamoeba are these types of microbes.
- Hepatitis is caused by this type of microbe.
- Hepatitis A is caused by ________
- RNA piconavirus
- Hepatitis B is caused by ___________
- DNA hepadnavirus
- Hepatitis C is caused by ______________
- RNA flavivirus
- Hepatitis D is caused by ____________
- delta viroid
- Hepatatis E is caused by ______________
- calici virus
- A fungus that grows in guano-enriched soils causes this lung disease.
- This is an accumulation of fluid in the lungs.
- Pulmonary edema
- This genus of bacteria causes diphtheria
- This genus of bacteria causes whooping cough (pertussis).
- This is an infection of the urinary bladder.
- This is an infection of the kidneys.
- Chancres and gummas are lesions associated with this disease.
- Pharyngeal gonorreah is caused by this genus of bacteria.
- Pharyngitis is caused by _____________ (5 types)
- Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Stahpylococcus aureus and/or Branhamella catarrhalis.
- The common cold is caused by ________ (3 types)
- Rhinoviruses, coronaviruses or adenoviruses.
- Laryngitis occurs when the _________ tissue of the larynx becomes inflamed by ____________ (3 types)
Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae.
- Corynebacterium diphtheriae has the classic look of __________ and is a Gram ____ microbe, with a ______ shape.
- picket fence (palisades)
- Diphtheria can cause this side reaction that can lead to death, especially in children.
- A pseudomembrane is formed by the death of the epithelial cells in the throat, which can detach and cause suffocation.
- Pneumonia can be caused by these strains of microbes (4 types).
- Strepotococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
- Legionnaire's disease is caused by _______, a Gram ___ microbe that exists in ___________.
- Legionella pneumophilla
negative obligate aerobe
A/C systems, pipes, heaters and vents with water leakage.
- Legionella pneumophilla is actually a _________ within ________.
- Tuberculosis is caused by __________
- Mycrobacterium tuberculosis
- Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome is caused by _________ and is obtained by ________
fleas from the deer mouse
- SARS stands for ____ _______ ______ ______
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
- SARS is caused by _______
- Pyelonephritis (infected kidney) is caused by ________
- E. coli
- Cystitis (infected urinary bladder) is caused by ________
- E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas (4 types).
- Pseudomonas are very ________ to antibiotics and are _________ to treat.
- Urethritis (infected urethra) is caused by ______________ (4 types).
- E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas.
- Cystitis can cause ________, which is painful urination, and ______, which is leucocytes in the urine.
- Vaginitis occurs when _______ pathogens become established.
- Toxic shock syndrome occurs when this microbe, _________ grows as a result of too much __________, caused by tampons that are left in place too long.
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Toxic shock syndrome is dangerous because of _________, which is produced by the microbe that causes it.
- Exotoxin C
- Gonorreah is caused by ___________, a _________ type of coccus.
- Neisseria gonorrhea
- Gonorrhea and syphilis are not transmitted by __________
- Syphilis has ___ stages
- Syphillis is caused by _________
- Treponema pallidum
- In the primary stage of syphillis, one of the symptoms is the development of _________ on the face, genitals and lips.
- In the secondary stage of syphillis, what happens?
- Symptoms come and go, rashes and lesions appear randomly, shedding active spirochetes. Damage to internal organs are occuring.
- During the third stage of syphillis, what happens?
- Gummas occurs internally and externally. Damage occurs to the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Paralysis, seizures and insanity are common.
- What happens to pregnant woman who contracts or has syphillis?
- Severe congenital birth defects can result.
- What microbe causes chlamydia and how is it transmitted?
- Chlamydia trachomatis, through sex
- What causes syphilis?
- Sexual contact and saliva
- How can syphilis be treated?
- With penicillin, tetracycline or erythromycin.
- What works against gonorreah?
- Penicillin, tetracycline
- What causes candidiasis?
- Candida albicans, a yeast
- What causes trichomoniasis?
- Trichimonas vaginalis, a protist
- How can someone get trichomoniasis?
- Through sex and fomites
- What microbe is the cause of AIDS?
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I
- What does the HIV type 1 virus do to cause AIDS?
- It injects its RNA into the helper and cytotoxic T cells and macrophages, which are disabled from activating B cells.
- How is HIV contracted?
- sex, dirty needles, blood transfusions, saliva.
- Name some microbes that causes meningitis (6 types).
- Naegleria fowleri, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium leprae.
- What microbe causes leprosy (Hansen's disease)?
- Mycobacterium leprae.
- What type of virus is rabies caused by?
- What are prions?
- Non-cellular, non-viral, naked pieces of protein. Infectious agents.
- What causes kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
- What causes mad cow disease and how do humans get it?
- Prions. When an infected cow's meat is released for consumption and humans eat it.
- What is kuru?
- A disease caused by eating brains infected by prions.
- Give three examples of non-specific immune response.
- Mechanical barriers: ex: human skin
Chemical barriers: ex: skin acids, salts. Interferons.
Inflammation barriers: ex: phagocytosis by neutrophils in blood, macrophages in lymph nodes.
- What kinds of cells are targeted toward specific immune response?
- Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Plasma B cells, memory B cells.
- What is immunity?
- The ability to produce antibodies to neutralize antigens.
- What is a vaccine?
- Attenuated or killed microbes or components of their cells walls or capsules or membranes or other component such as an isolated protein.
- What is antisera and what is it for?
- Ready-made antibodies directly injected, such as that for snake bite. These do not produce memory B cells.
- Whta microbe causes typhus fever and how is it transmitted?
- Rickettsia prowazekii. Transmitted by human body lice.
- What microbe causes murine typhus fever and how is it transmitted?
- Rickettsia typhii, transmitted by fleas from rats and mice.
- What is another name for Bartonella, and where does it come from?
- "Cat scratch fever" in humans, from cat fleas.
- What is the microbe that causes The Plague?
- Yersinia pestis, a gram (-) rod.
- What two microbes can cause extensive tissue damage in burn victims?
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens.
- What is the name for substances excreted by microbes that are dangerous to humans?
- What are two microbe types that can cause endocarditis?
- Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.
- Are normal microflora of the integument Gram (+) or Gram (-)?
- Gram (+)
- What kind of microbe causes acne?
- Propionibacterium acnes
- What is the normal acidic level of the skin?
- 3 to 5 pH
- What are pathogens?
- Disease-causing agents.
- What are antigens?
- Any form of protein or substance in the form of venom, ingested toxins or microbial surface by-products such as exotoxins, endotoxins or enterotoxins.
- How does the HIV virus infect the body?
- The HIV particle enters a leucocyte by merging its outer envelope of lipids with the phospholipid membranes of the target cell. The genome (RNA) of the virus then enters and disables the cell.
- Helper T cells do what?
- Activate the cytotoxic T cells and B cells.
- B cells do what?
- Produce the antibodies that neutralize specific antigens.
- Plasma B cells perform what function?
- Actively produce antobodies
- What are B cells and where are they found?
- Lymphocytes that have been modified in the lymph nodes and spleen for specific immune functions.
- What are memory B cells?
- B cells that remain in the lymph nodes to be reactivated in the future when needed.
- Define septicemia.
- A massive proliferation of microbes in the bloodstream.
- Define sepsis.
- A toxic accumulation of microbial waste in the blood stream.
- Define septic shock.
- Extreme body-wide inflammation response involving clotting or hemorrhaging, dilation of blood vessels
- What happens when a human is infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathic diseases such as kuru?
- The brain becomes riddled with holes and unusual protein deposits.
- What are lymphocytes?
- White blood cells, part of the immune system.
- Where do T cells form and from what do they form?
- In the thymus gland, from lymphocytes.
- How do cytotoxic, or killer, T cells, work?
- They destroy invading microbes by disrupting their plasma membranes or by destroying the cells that they have invaded.
- What microbe causes genital herpes?
- Herpes simplex type 2
- Where do genital herpes virus cells reside in the body during their latent period?
- In the sacral ganglia at the base of the spinal cord.
- What are the two types of food poisoning and what makes them different?
- 1. Food infection - when microbes invade the digestive tract from ingested food.
2. Food intoxication - when microbes contaminate the food before it has been ingested.
- What microbes cause food infection (5 types)?
- Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Campylobacter, E.coli.
- What microbes cause food intoxication? (2 types)
- Clostridium and Staphylococcus
- What microbe causes botulism and where is it found?
- Clostridium botulinum, found in canned foods.
- What microbes can infect eggs, dairy products and meat that have not been refridgerated? (2 types)
- E. coli and Staph. aureus.
- What disease is caused by Entamoeba histolytica?
- Amoebic dysentery
- Which disease is especially bad for a pregnant woman to get, that can be transmitted by cats?
- What type of microbe is Toxoplasma?
- A protist
- What microbe produces aflatoxins?
- What crazy microbe produces ergotism?
- Which microbes infect grains, nuts, peanuts, etc.
- Aspergillus, Claviceps
- Which microbes cause sinusitis? (4 types)
- Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus.
- What microbe strains cause strep throat scarlet fever or rheumatic fever?
- beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus pyogenes
- What does pyogenes mean?
- "pus forming"
- What causes chicken pox and shingles?
- Varicella zoster
- Which virus causes measles?
- What microbe causes German measles?
- If you get a cold sore or fever blister, what microbe could be causing it?
- Herpes simplex type 1
- What microbe causes warts?
- Papilloma virus
- What is usually a microbe found in the venom of spiders and snakes with hemotoxic venom?
- Which structures are part of the oral cavity and oropharynx?
- Mucus membranes of mouth
- What is the antimicrobial substance found in the saliva called and how does it affect microbes?
- Lysozyme. It tears bacterial cell walls.
- Which microbes remain attached in large numbers to the mucus membranes of the mouth, tongue and on tooth surfaces?
- Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis
- Which microbes cause bad breath?
- alpha hemolytic streptococci such as Branhamella catarrhalis and Corynebacterium
- What microbe causes tooth decay?
- Streptococcus mutans
- What component produced by microbes causes dental caries?
- Lactid acid
- Name four types of microbes that reside on the teeth?
- Streptococcus mutans
- What genus causes Pyorrhea (gum abscess)?
- What two microbes cause Gingivitis (gum inflammation)?
- Fusobacterium and Actinomyces
- What microbe causes Trenchmouth?
- What type of virus can cause mumps?
- What type of yeast causes candidiasis (thrush)?
- What causes esophagitis?
- What microbe causes peptic ulcers?
- Helicobacter pylori
- What is a ruminant animal?
- An animal such as a cow, that have "fermentation chambers" that make up the stomach.
- What is the concentration of microbes found in human fecal matter? What is the percentage of human fecal matter that has microvial cells?
- 10 to the 12th power/gram.
- The colon is a type of what?
- What 6 types of aerobic microbes are facultative in the colon?
- What are the 4 types of obligate anaerobes that live in the colon?
- What type of microbe produces "Beaver fever"?
- Giardia, a protist
- How does Entamoeba histolytica enter the body and what disease does it cause?
- Fecally contaminated water or raw vegetables. It causes amoebic dysentery.
- What type of microbe is Naegleria fowleri and what disease does it cause? How does it enter the body?
- It is a protist. It causes meningitis. It comes through the nasal passages.
- Name the sections of the upper respiratory tract.
- Nasal cavity
Throat to larynx
Middle ear cavity
- Name the parts of the lower respiratory tract.
alveoli of lungs
- What protects the respiratory tract?
- Cilia, mucus of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and macrophages.
- What microbe causes "spelunker's disease"?
- What microbes are found in the length of the male urethra?
- Normally, none. At the end may be Staphylococcus epidermidis and Mycobacterium smegmatitis.
- What microbes are found along the length of the female urethra?
- Enterobacters, escherichias, neisserias, mycobacters, candidas, Gram (-) anaerobes.
- What is leptospirosis and what does it affect?
- A disease caused by spirochetes, causing kidney infection. The microbe, Leptospira, is transmitted by the urine of infected rodents.
- What microbes are found in pre-pubescent female vaginas?
- Name 5 types of bacteria that affect the nervous system.
- Neisseria meningitidis
- What are three types of immune cells?
- Neutrophils in the blood
Lymphocytes in the blood
Macrophages in the lymph system
- What are interferons?
- Antiviral proteins produced by cells that have been affected by a virus.
- What is the meaning of life?
- Trying to remember to relax during microbiology exams!
You must Login or Register to add cards