Glossary of Rand - Human Microflora

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What is the most common microbe found in the mature female vagina?
This type of exotoxins cause the skin blisters of "scalded skin syndrome".
This type of agar is used to isolate potential skin pathogens.
This is a causative agent of Hansen's disease.
Mycobacterium leprae
This is the causative agent of necrotizing fascitis.
Streptococcus pyogenes
This is the causative agent of dandruff.
This is the causative agent of tooth decay.
Streptococcus mutans
These are enlarged lymph nodes characteristic of a Yersinia pestis infection.
Deer ticks are vectors of _______ which causes this disease.
Borrelia, Lyme disease.
This group of obligate intracellular parasites cause human typhus fever.
Microbes that cause bubonic plague are transferred to humans by these arthropods.
Hemorrhagic diarreah is caused by a virulent strain of this microbe.
E. coli
Giardia and Entamoeba are these types of microbes.
Hepatitis is caused by this type of microbe.
Hepatitis A is caused by ________
RNA piconavirus
Hepatitis B is caused by ___________
DNA hepadnavirus
Hepatitis C is caused by ______________
RNA flavivirus
Hepatitis D is caused by ____________
delta viroid
Hepatatis E is caused by ______________
calici virus
A fungus that grows in guano-enriched soils causes this lung disease.
This is an accumulation of fluid in the lungs.
Pulmonary edema
This genus of bacteria causes diphtheria
This genus of bacteria causes whooping cough (pertussis).
This is an infection of the urinary bladder.
This is an infection of the kidneys.
Chancres and gummas are lesions associated with this disease.
Pharyngeal gonorreah is caused by this genus of bacteria.
Pharyngitis is caused by _____________ (5 types)
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Stahpylococcus aureus and/or Branhamella catarrhalis.
The common cold is caused by ________ (3 types)
Rhinoviruses, coronaviruses or adenoviruses.
Laryngitis occurs when the _________ tissue of the larynx becomes inflamed by ____________ (3 types)
Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae has the classic look of __________ and is a Gram ____ microbe, with a ______ shape.
picket fence (palisades)
Diphtheria can cause this side reaction that can lead to death, especially in children.
A pseudomembrane is formed by the death of the epithelial cells in the throat, which can detach and cause suffocation.
Pneumonia can be caused by these strains of microbes (4 types).
Strepotococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Legionnaire's disease is caused by _______, a Gram ___ microbe that exists in ___________.
Legionella pneumophilla
negative obligate aerobe
A/C systems, pipes, heaters and vents with water leakage.
Legionella pneumophilla is actually a _________ within ________.
Tuberculosis is caused by __________
Mycrobacterium tuberculosis
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome is caused by _________ and is obtained by ________
fleas from the deer mouse
SARS stands for ____ _______ ______ ______
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SARS is caused by _______
Pyelonephritis (infected kidney) is caused by ________
E. coli
Cystitis (infected urinary bladder) is caused by ________
E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas (4 types).
Pseudomonas are very ________ to antibiotics and are _________ to treat.
Urethritis (infected urethra) is caused by ______________ (4 types).
E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas.
Cystitis can cause ________, which is painful urination, and ______, which is leucocytes in the urine.
Vaginitis occurs when _______ pathogens become established.
Toxic shock syndrome occurs when this microbe, _________ grows as a result of too much __________, caused by tampons that are left in place too long.
Staphylococcus aureus
Toxic shock syndrome is dangerous because of _________, which is produced by the microbe that causes it.
Exotoxin C
Gonorreah is caused by ___________, a _________ type of coccus.
Neisseria gonorrhea
Gonorrhea and syphilis are not transmitted by __________
Syphilis has ___ stages
Syphillis is caused by _________
Treponema pallidum
In the primary stage of syphillis, one of the symptoms is the development of _________ on the face, genitals and lips.
In the secondary stage of syphillis, what happens?
Symptoms come and go, rashes and lesions appear randomly, shedding active spirochetes. Damage to internal organs are occuring.
During the third stage of syphillis, what happens?
Gummas occurs internally and externally. Damage occurs to the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Paralysis, seizures and insanity are common.
What happens to pregnant woman who contracts or has syphillis?
Severe congenital birth defects can result.
What microbe causes chlamydia and how is it transmitted?
Chlamydia trachomatis, through sex
What causes syphilis?
Sexual contact and saliva
How can syphilis be treated?
With penicillin, tetracycline or erythromycin.
What works against gonorreah?
Penicillin, tetracycline
What causes candidiasis?
Candida albicans, a yeast
What causes trichomoniasis?
Trichimonas vaginalis, a protist
How can someone get trichomoniasis?
Through sex and fomites
What microbe is the cause of AIDS?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I
What does the HIV type 1 virus do to cause AIDS?
It injects its RNA into the helper and cytotoxic T cells and macrophages, which are disabled from activating B cells.
How is HIV contracted?
sex, dirty needles, blood transfusions, saliva.
Name some microbes that causes meningitis (6 types).
Naegleria fowleri, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium leprae.
What microbe causes leprosy (Hansen's disease)?
Mycobacterium leprae.
What type of virus is rabies caused by?
What are prions?
Non-cellular, non-viral, naked pieces of protein. Infectious agents.
What causes kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
What causes mad cow disease and how do humans get it?
Prions. When an infected cow's meat is released for consumption and humans eat it.
What is kuru?
A disease caused by eating brains infected by prions.
Give three examples of non-specific immune response.
Mechanical barriers: ex: human skin
Chemical barriers: ex: skin acids, salts. Interferons.
Inflammation barriers: ex: phagocytosis by neutrophils in blood, macrophages in lymph nodes.
What kinds of cells are targeted toward specific immune response?
Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Plasma B cells, memory B cells.
What is immunity?
The ability to produce antibodies to neutralize antigens.
What is a vaccine?
Attenuated or killed microbes or components of their cells walls or capsules or membranes or other component such as an isolated protein.
What is antisera and what is it for?
Ready-made antibodies directly injected, such as that for snake bite. These do not produce memory B cells.
Whta microbe causes typhus fever and how is it transmitted?
Rickettsia prowazekii. Transmitted by human body lice.
What microbe causes murine typhus fever and how is it transmitted?
Rickettsia typhii, transmitted by fleas from rats and mice.
What is another name for Bartonella, and where does it come from?
"Cat scratch fever" in humans, from cat fleas.
What is the microbe that causes The Plague?
Yersinia pestis, a gram (-) rod.
What two microbes can cause extensive tissue damage in burn victims?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens.
What is the name for substances excreted by microbes that are dangerous to humans?
What are two microbe types that can cause endocarditis?
Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.
Are normal microflora of the integument Gram (+) or Gram (-)?
Gram (+)
What kind of microbe causes acne?
Propionibacterium acnes
What is the normal acidic level of the skin?
3 to 5 pH
What are pathogens?
Disease-causing agents.
What are antigens?
Any form of protein or substance in the form of venom, ingested toxins or microbial surface by-products such as exotoxins, endotoxins or enterotoxins.
How does the HIV virus infect the body?
The HIV particle enters a leucocyte by merging its outer envelope of lipids with the phospholipid membranes of the target cell. The genome (RNA) of the virus then enters and disables the cell.
Helper T cells do what?
Activate the cytotoxic T cells and B cells.
B cells do what?
Produce the antibodies that neutralize specific antigens.
Plasma B cells perform what function?
Actively produce antobodies
What are B cells and where are they found?
Lymphocytes that have been modified in the lymph nodes and spleen for specific immune functions.
What are memory B cells?
B cells that remain in the lymph nodes to be reactivated in the future when needed.
Define septicemia.
A massive proliferation of microbes in the bloodstream.
Define sepsis.
A toxic accumulation of microbial waste in the blood stream.
Define septic shock.
Extreme body-wide inflammation response involving clotting or hemorrhaging, dilation of blood vessels
What happens when a human is infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathic diseases such as kuru?
The brain becomes riddled with holes and unusual protein deposits.
What are lymphocytes?
White blood cells, part of the immune system.
Where do T cells form and from what do they form?
In the thymus gland, from lymphocytes.
How do cytotoxic, or killer, T cells, work?
They destroy invading microbes by disrupting their plasma membranes or by destroying the cells that they have invaded.
What microbe causes genital herpes?
Herpes simplex type 2
Where do genital herpes virus cells reside in the body during their latent period?
In the sacral ganglia at the base of the spinal cord.
What are the two types of food poisoning and what makes them different?
1. Food infection - when microbes invade the digestive tract from ingested food.
2. Food intoxication - when microbes contaminate the food before it has been ingested.
What microbes cause food infection (5 types)?
Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Campylobacter, E.coli.
What microbes cause food intoxication? (2 types)
Clostridium and Staphylococcus
What microbe causes botulism and where is it found?
Clostridium botulinum, found in canned foods.
What microbes can infect eggs, dairy products and meat that have not been refridgerated? (2 types)
E. coli and Staph. aureus.
What disease is caused by Entamoeba histolytica?
Amoebic dysentery
Which disease is especially bad for a pregnant woman to get, that can be transmitted by cats?
What type of microbe is Toxoplasma?
A protist
What microbe produces aflatoxins?
What crazy microbe produces ergotism?
Which microbes infect grains, nuts, peanuts, etc.
Aspergillus, Claviceps
Which microbes cause sinusitis? (4 types)
Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus.
What microbe strains cause strep throat scarlet fever or rheumatic fever?
beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus pyogenes
What does pyogenes mean?
"pus forming"
What causes chicken pox and shingles?
Varicella zoster
Which virus causes measles?
What microbe causes German measles?
If you get a cold sore or fever blister, what microbe could be causing it?
Herpes simplex type 1
What microbe causes warts?
Papilloma virus
What is usually a microbe found in the venom of spiders and snakes with hemotoxic venom?
Which structures are part of the oral cavity and oropharynx?
Mucus membranes of mouth
Upper pharynx
Salivary glands
What is the antimicrobial substance found in the saliva called and how does it affect microbes?
Lysozyme. It tears bacterial cell walls.
Which microbes remain attached in large numbers to the mucus membranes of the mouth, tongue and on tooth surfaces?
Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis
Which microbes cause bad breath?
alpha hemolytic streptococci such as Branhamella catarrhalis and Corynebacterium
What microbe causes tooth decay?
Streptococcus mutans
What component produced by microbes causes dental caries?
Lactid acid
Name four types of microbes that reside on the teeth?
Streptococcus mutans
Streptococcus sanguis
Streptococcus sobrinus
What genus causes Pyorrhea (gum abscess)?
What two microbes cause Gingivitis (gum inflammation)?
Fusobacterium and Actinomyces
What microbe causes Trenchmouth?
What type of virus can cause mumps?
What type of yeast causes candidiasis (thrush)?
What causes esophagitis?
What microbe causes peptic ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori
What is a ruminant animal?
An animal such as a cow, that have "fermentation chambers" that make up the stomach.
What is the concentration of microbes found in human fecal matter? What is the percentage of human fecal matter that has microvial cells?
10 to the 12th power/gram.
The colon is a type of what?
What 6 types of aerobic microbes are facultative in the colon?
What are the 4 types of obligate anaerobes that live in the colon?
What type of microbe produces "Beaver fever"?
Giardia, a protist
How does Entamoeba histolytica enter the body and what disease does it cause?
Fecally contaminated water or raw vegetables. It causes amoebic dysentery.
What type of microbe is Naegleria fowleri and what disease does it cause? How does it enter the body?
It is a protist. It causes meningitis. It comes through the nasal passages.
Name the sections of the upper respiratory tract.
Nasal cavity
Throat to larynx
Eustachian tubes
Middle ear cavity
Name the parts of the lower respiratory tract.
alveolar ducts
alveoli of lungs
What protects the respiratory tract?
Cilia, mucus of ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and macrophages.
What microbe causes "spelunker's disease"?
What microbes are found in the length of the male urethra?
Normally, none. At the end may be Staphylococcus epidermidis and Mycobacterium smegmatitis.
What microbes are found along the length of the female urethra?
Enterobacters, escherichias, neisserias, mycobacters, candidas, Gram (-) anaerobes.
What is leptospirosis and what does it affect?
A disease caused by spirochetes, causing kidney infection. The microbe, Leptospira, is transmitted by the urine of infected rodents.
What microbes are found in pre-pubescent female vaginas?
Name 5 types of bacteria that affect the nervous system.
Neisseria meningitidis
Haemophilus influenzae
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Listeria monocytogenes
Mycobacterium leprae
What are three types of immune cells?
Neutrophils in the blood
Lymphocytes in the blood
Macrophages in the lymph system
What are interferons?
Antiviral proteins produced by cells that have been affected by a virus.
What is the meaning of life?
Trying to remember to relax during microbiology exams!

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