Glossary of Radiobiology Chapter 1

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What are all living things made of?
Organic material called protoplasm
What is the smallest unit capable of independent existence called?
Cells that serve the same function adn are grouped together are called?
(ex. blood adn nerves)
Protoplasm consists of these two types of materials.
Inorgainc and organic compounds, either dissolved or suspended in water
Protoplasm is _______ of water
70 to 85%
What are the main functions of water in the cell?
One of the best solvents known; more chemical substances dissolve in water than in most other liquids. Dispersion medium for compounds in the cell and as a transport vehicle for substances used by the cell or eliminated by the cell. Physiologic activities that occur in the cell do so largely in water. Protects cell from drastic temp. changes.
What are the inorganic components of the cell?
Mineral Salts- Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K): K inside the cell and Na outside the cell, prevent death of the cell from swelling or collapsing. Sodium and potassium perform this function by maintaining the proper proportion of water in the cell (osmotic pressure)
List the four major clsses of organic components in the cell
Nucleic Acid
What percentage do proteins contribute to the cell?
What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?
Monomer-simple units, individually stable and have specific characteristics and properties. Polymers- are monomers joined together to form a chain.
This is the process by which polymers are joined together
What are the building blocks of proteins called? Approximately how many are there?
Amino Acids
How are these building blocks connected to one another?
by a peptide bond
What is a group of proteins called that act as catalysts in the cell?
Carbohydrates make up _____% fo the cell
What is the purpose of carbohydrates?
primary source of energy
What are the three main classifications of carbohydrates?
What are the two nucleic acids of protoplasm?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
What is the percentage of the cell is nucleic acid?
What is the purpose of lipids in the cell? What percentage do they make up?
Serve a variety of functions, such as storage of energy, protection of hte body against cold, and assistance in digestive processes. Lipids are the structural components of the cell membrane. 2%
What are the two main sections of the cell?
nucleus and cytoplasm
What is the difference between anabolism and catabolism?
Anabolism is building up (synthesis) and catabolism is breaking down
_______ are membrane limited structures in teh cells
What is the main function of the cell membrane?
Monitor all exchanges between intercellular (inside the cell) and extracellular (outside the cell) fluid and its contents, thus maintaining the proper physiologic conditions necessary for life (selectively permeable).
What structure is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) continuous with?
With the space between the layers fo the nuclear membrane
What are the two types of ER?
Smooth and Rough
What is the purpose of Rough ER?
Produce proteins, travel through the series of channels adn move out of cell some are used in the cell, but most leave
What is the purpose of Smooth
thought to make certain lipid molecules and thought to detoxify certain drugs
What do the ribosomes do?
Actual sight of protein synthesis
What are ribosomes made of?
Proteins and RNA

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