Glossary of Pyschology Exam III

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A consistent set of behavioral characteristics that people display over time and across situations, that distinguish individuals from each other.
Relatively consistent characteristics exhibited across a range of situations.
Personality Traits
The Big Five; openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreebleness, neuroticism.
The "O" in the Big Five
The "C" in The Big Five
The "E" in The Big Five
The "A" in The Big Five
The "N" in The Big Five
An approach, largely based on Psychoanalytic Theory which assumes that people will reveal aspects of their own personality and sources of unconscious conflict via the mechanizm of projection.
Projective Test
What are two test examples of the Projective Test?
1) Rorshach Test (Inkblot test)
2) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Extraverts have been found to be less arousable than introverts- it takes a higher level of stimulation to arouse an extravert. Extraverts tend to seek out activities that involve higher levels of stimulation and typically, greater risks.
Research findings on Extraversion.
Persons who socre high on Neuroticism are easily and intensely emotionally aroused and are more liekyl to experience Conditioned Emotional Responses. In women, neuroimaging studies indicate differences in brain areas involved in response to negative and
Findings on Neuroticism
Eysenck postulated that persons who score high on Psychoticism, have less control over their emotions and are more likely to be agressive or impulsive. And colleagues showed that underarousal at age 15 predicted criminality at age 24 in 75% of the cases.
Findings on Psychoticism
Innate inclinations to engage in a certain style of behavior.
What three parts make up the "Structure of the Freudian Personality?"
Id, Ego, Superego
From birth until about a year and a half. sucking phase, and biting phase.
Oral Stage
From ages a year and a half to 3 years old. _______ expulsive phase; ___________ retentive phase.
Anal Stage, anal
From ages 3-6. Males experience the Oedipus Conflict and Castration Anxiety; females experience the Electra Conflict and Penis Envy.
Phallic Stage
Just know that both Oedipus Conflict, Electra Conflict/Penis Envy are normally resolved by identification with ehsame sex parent and the further development of the superego.
No answer for this one!
Age 6 until puberty. During this stage, the sexual urges are repressed.
Latency Period
Begins at puberty. Erogenous zones shift to the sexual organs. The task at this stage is the ability to form a sexual love relationship. Freud proposed that in women, an immature orgasm involved the clitoris and that a mature organisms involves a vaginal
Genital Stage
What Psychoanalytic Theorists focused on inferiority feelings and strivings for superiority?
Alfred Adler
Humanistic Psychology: Which psychologist has the pyramid theory of motivation?
Abraham Maslow
The belief that the rpimary drive is toward self-actualization.
Pyramid Theory of motivation
The psychologist that believed in non-directive therapy and the concept of Unconditional Positive Regard.
Carl Rogers
The type of therapy when therapists strive to show warmth, genuineness, and empath.
Non-directive therapy
Expectancies are a powerful influenced on our behavior. One Personality difference influencing behavior is external versus internal locus of Control.
Cognitive Theorists
The sense that one has the ability to follow through and perform the behaviors we would like to perform
Self Efficacy, (Alfred Bandura)
Have a brief undersanding of this concept: it is difficult to compare personalities across cultures. Just translating words cross cultures does not guarantee that the word will convey the same meaning.
Culture and Personality
Find the needs of the group more important than those of the individual (i.e. Asian African-American, Latin American, Arab value humility, honor, family, maintenance of social order and care for all others even strangers.)
Collectivist Cultures
For example, the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, emphasize the individual even at the expense of others, and value personal freedom, equality, and enjoyment.
Individualist Cultures
The _________ is the fertilized egg. The period of the ____________ is from 0 to 2 weeks after conception.
Zygote Period
The period of the _____: from 2 weeks until 8 weeks.
Embryo; Embryonic Period
Period of the ___________: 8 weeks to birth.
Fetal Period
When infants are startled, they throw back there arms widely.
The Moro Reflex
When you stroke the sole of an infants foot, the big toe will flex while the other toes fan out.
Babinksi Reflex
Know that newborns are sensitive to a wide range of women's voices and a relatively sensitive sense of smell.
no answer.
Young children sometimes use words over broadly, such as calling a cat a cat, but also calling a dog a cat, a horse a cat, etc.
Using words too narrowly, for example, referring to dogs only as animals and not using the term dog or the term animals to apply to other animals as well as dogs.
The type of speech that involves the simplest possible sentences such as "give candy" or "dog bad"
Telegraphic Speech
Miestakes caused by the misapplication of the rule for regular verb formation, using the rule inappropriately. For example a child may say "I ran away" one week, then the next week may say "I runnedx away"
Overregularization Errors
very simple innate mental structures that organize perceptual input and connect it to the appropriate responses. For example, the young infant may have one of thse that triggers sucking the nipple.
Allows the infant to take in new stimuli and respond accordingly. For example, the schema for sucking a breast can be used for sucking a bottle.
Problems in determing lying and truthfulness.
Lie Detector Test
an inherited tendecy to produce organized and unalterable responses to a particular stimuli.
An internal imbalance that pushes you to reach a particular goal, which in turn, will reduce the imbalance.
In learning Theory, drive reduction theory assumes that whatever is associated with the reduction of a drive is reinforcing. For example, food if you are hungry. Neal Miller defined drive as strong unpleasant stimulation and that whatever was associated
Drive Reduction Theory
The process of maintaing a steady state. A thermostat on a furnace is a good analogy. If it is too cold, it turns on and if it's too hot then it turns on.
The law basically states that we perform best when we're at an intermediate level of arousal (not too hyped up but not at a low level of arousal - we perform best at an intermediate level of arousal.)
The Yerkes-Dodson Law
A condition that arises from a lack of a requirement. These give rise to to drives.
physioigcal ocndition of the body that requires nourishment.
the biological definition of needs.
Things that are not based on biological needs. Things you can live with out.
If the first bites of food taste good, our appetites are stimulated.
Appetizer effect.
But also note: that if the flavor, texture, coor, or shape of the same food is changed, people may eat more of it.
Disgust reactions to certain foods. Taste Aversions tend to be very long lasting and can be formed without evidence of classical conditioning.
Taste Aversion
(a) People and other animals settle on a particular body weight that is easiest to maintain.
(b) Set points can change as a result of environmental changes, activity chagnes, or changes in psychoogical states such as depression.
(c) This usuall
The Concept of Set Point.
One who is more than 20% heavier than the medically ideal weight for the person's sex, height and bone structure.
Fat personalities, fat genes, fat environment.
Three theories of obesity
the notion that obesity is associated response to stress or that there are certain predisposing personality dynamics. This is overall little support for this.
Fat Personalities
The fact that some forms of obesity ar einfluenced by genetics. Genes may affect weight in multiple ways - some affect appetite, some affect satiety.
Fat genes
Overeating is encouraged in many of our environments. For example, relatively recent criticisms of fast food industries for "Biggy Sizing"
Fat Environment
The theory that states that poeple are fat simply because they eat too much.
Glutomy Hypothesis
These two people were the first investigators to study actual sexual behavior in Humans. Much of their research focused on physiological changes during sex. over the years, they sthousands of men and women.
Masters and Johnson (1966)
Initial Arousal
The excitement phase
The height of arousal, usually maintained for varying periods before an orgasm.
The Plateau
Muscle contraction in men and heightened physiological changes associated with ejaculation. There are similar changes in women and sometimes a release of fluid during this, but not the same as a man's.
The release of sexual tension and the return to a physiological baseline. Phase four is followed by refractory period.
The excitement phase
the plateau
The four sexual stages in both men and women
In some, not all adolescents, they view themselves as actors and everyone else as the audience. This is thought to be one basis for the relatively extreme self-consciousness regarding physical appearance as well as behavior.
Imaginary Audience
Some adolescence believe that they are living a story in which they are the star. As a star, they can do as they please with reckless disregard of consequences.
Personal Fable
Know that despite the Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable appear to be descriptive of some adolescents, most adolescents remain influenced by their family and parents with regard to basic values and goals.
No answer.
Generally adolescents who have a good realtionship with their parents, tend to have more positive intimate interaction with others. Most adolescents develop predominatnly the same gender relationships.
no answer
Shortly before death, particularly if the cause will be verebrovascular disease such strokes and heart attacks, many people show a dramatic decline on a wide range of cognitive tests.
Terminal Decline, think about it, terminal -- decline. You got it!
Some research indicates that as people enter old age, they tend to experience periods of highly positive emotions and less enduring spells of negative emotions than do younger people.
Just know that.
Older couples tend to resolve their differences with less negative emotion than younger people
Just know that.

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