Glossary of Psychosocial

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Human development:
Human development is the scientific study of processes of change and stability.
What does the study of human development seek to achieve?
The study of human development seeks to describe, explain, predict, and modify development.
Quantitative change:
Change in number or amount, such as height, weight or size of vocabulary.
Qualitative change:
Change in kind, structure or organisation, such as the change from non-verbal to verbal communication.
Physical development:
Growth of body and brain and change or stability in sensory capacities, motor skills and health.
Cognitive development:
Change or stability in mental abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning and creativity.
Psychosocial development:
Erikson – 8 stage theory. The socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego, or self.
Social construction:
Concept about the nature of reality, based on socially shared perceptions or assumptions.
Prenatal period:
Conception to birth.
Infancy and toddlerhood:
Birth to 3yrs.
Early childhood:
3 to 6yrs.
Middle childhood:
6 to 11yrs.
11 to about 20yrs.
Young adulthood:
20 to 40yrs.
Middle adulthood:
40 to 65yrs.
Late adulthood:
65yrs and over.
Nuclear family:
Kinship and household unit made up of 1 or 2 parents and their natural, adopted, or stepchildren.
Extended family:
Kinship network of parents, children and other relatives, sometimes living together in an extended family household.
Risk factors:
Conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative developmental outcome.
Characteristics of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a group.
Group of people growing up at about the same time.
Characteristic of an unusual event that happens to a particular person, or a typical event that happens at an unusual time of life.
Instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother.
Critical period:
Specific time when a given event, or its absence has a specific impact on development.
Sensitive periods:
Times in development when a person is particularly responsive to certain kinds of experience.
Coherent set of logically related concepts that seek to organise, explain and predict data.
Possible explanations for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research.
Mechanistic model:
Model that views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli.
Organismic model:
Model that views development as internally initiated by an active organism, and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.
Psychoanalytic perspective:
View of development as shaped by unconscious forces.
Psychosexual development:
Freud – Am unvarying sequence of stages of personality development during infancy, childhood and adolescence in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals.
Freud’s Oral Stage:
Birth to 1yr - Pleasure is derived from oral activities such as sucking, biting and chewing.
Freud’s Anal Stage:
1 to 3 yrs - Pleasure come from issues surrounding voluntary urination and defecation. Toilet training becomes a major conflict between parents and children and parental reaction to toilet training has a lasting effect on the child's personality.
Freud’s Phallic Stage:
3 to 6 yrs - Pleasure comes from direct genital stimulation. Children develop an incestuous desire for the opposite sex parent. This is where the Oedipus and Electra complex develops.
Freud’s Latency Stage:
6 to 11yrs - Sexual conflicts and desires are repressed due to trauma and guilt surrounding the phallic stage. The ego and superego develop during this stage as children make gains in problem solving and internalising societal values.
Freud’s Genital Stage:
12yrs onward - Sexual urges become dominate in the individual’s life. Adolescence is characterised by learning how to express these urges in socially acceptable ways.
Erikson's Trust vs. Mistrust:
Birth to 1yr - Infants learn to trust others to care for them and meet their basic needs. Inconsistent child rearing may lead the child to view the world as a dangerous place with untrustworthy people.
Erikson’s Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt:
1 to 3yrs - Child learn basic skills to care for themselves. Failure to learn these skills may make the child dependent on others and become shameful of him or herself.
Erikson’s Initiative vs. Guilt:
Child will take on responsibilities beyond their capacity. These activities may conflict with the parents and cause the child to feel guilty about their behavior. The key in this stage is to achieve a balance between initiative and not infringing on the rights and privileges of others.
Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority:
6 to 12yrs - Child acquire social and academic skills. They begin to compare themselves with other peers. If they feel they are lacking in industry (skills) as compared to peers, they may develop inferiority complexes that could interfere with functioning.
Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion:
12 to 20yrs - The major issues in this stage centre around the adolescence's question of "who am I?" This is a transition stage between childhood and adulthood where the child experiments with roles. If the child does not establish an identity then they may be confused as adults about the roles they should be playing.
Erikson’s Intimacy vs. Isolation:
20 to 40yrs - The task at this age is to form strong social relationships and establish intimate relationships. Without these relationships the individual may feel lonely and isolated which may interfere with the person's ability to form lasting relationships in the future.
Erikson’s Generativity vs. Stagnation:
40 to 65yrs - Adults face the task of becoming productive members of society and nurturing the younger generations. Those unwilling or unable to assume these roles become stagnant and self-centred.
Erikson’s Ego Integrity vs. Despair:
Old age - The older adult assessed their life as either meaningful and productive or as a life full of disappointments. Life experiences determine how the adult will deal with this life crisis.
Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage:
Birth to 2yrs - Children begin to understand objects first by reflexive reactions to them, then by interacting with them purposefully. Through these interactions children learn to make mental symbols of objects.
Piaget’s Pre-Operational Stage:
2 to 7yrs - Children begin to use mental symbols to represent objects (words, images) and begin to gain representational understanding. However they are not engaged in cognitive operations such as conservation and higher order perspective taking.
Piaget’s Concrete-Operational Stage:
7 to 11yrs - Children become less egocentric in their thinking and reasoning and begin to understand conservation concepts such as reversibility. However, children at this age still lack the ability to reason abstractly.
Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage:
11, 12yrs and beyond - This is when children begin to reason abstractly, and rationally. The formal operational stage is not necessarily obtained by all individuals and may not permeate to all areas of reasoning.
Maslow’s Hierarchy:Level 1 (Bottom) -
Physiological Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy:Level 2 -
Safety Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy:Level 3 -
Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness
Maslow’s Hierarchy:Level 4 -
Needs for Esteem
Maslow’s Hierarchy:Level 5 (Top) -
Needs for Self-Actualisation
Learning perspective:
View of development that holds that changes in behavior result from experience or adaptation to the environment.
Learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behavior.
Classical conditioning:
Learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit the response.
Operant conditioning:
Learning based on reinforcement or punishment.
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that encourages repetition of a desired behavior.
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that discourages repetition of a behavior.
Social learning or social cognitive theory:
Theory that behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models.
Observational learning:
Learning through watching the behavior of others.
Cognitive perspective:
View that thought processes are central to development.
Piaget’s term for integration of knowledge into systems.
Piaget’s term for organised patterns of behavior used in different situations.
Piaget’s term for adjustment to new information about the environment.
Piaget’s term for incorporation of new information into an existing cognitive structure.
Piaget’s term for changes in a cognitive structure to include new information.
Piaget’s term for the tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements.
Contextual perspective:
View of development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context.
Socialcultural theory:
Vygotsky’s theory of how contextual factors affect children’s development.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD):
Vygotsky’s term for the difference between what a child can do alone and with help.
Temporary support to help a child master a task.
Quantitative research:
Research that focuses on ‘hard’ data and numerical or statistical measures.
Qualitative research:
Research that focuses on ‘soft’ data, such as subjective experiences, feelings, or beliefs.
Object permanence:
Piaget’s term for the understanding that a person or object still exists when out of sight.
Characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations.
Easy child:
Child with a generally happy temperament, regular biological rhythms and readiness to accept new experiences.
Difficult child:
Child with irritable temperament, irregular biological rhythms and intense emotional responses.
‘Slow-to-warm-up’ child:
Child whose temperament is generally mild but who is hesitant about new experiences.
Secure attachment:
Pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves, and actively seeks out the caregiver upon their return.
Avoidant attachment:
Pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated by the primary caregiver and avoids contact upon their return.
Ambivalent (resistant) attachment:
Pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during their absence and both seeks and resists contact on their return.
Disorientated attachment:
Pattern in which an infant, after separation from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory behaviors upon their return.
James’ term for the subjective entity that seeks to know about itself.
James’ term for what a person objectively knows about themselves. Also known as ‘Self concept’.
Self efficacy:
Sense of capability to master challenges and achieve goals.
Development of habits, skills, values and motives shared by responsible, productive members of a society.
Process by which children accept societal standards of conduct as their own
C . A . R . E:
How can problems be best Contained?
How can Awareness/self-knowledge be enhanced?
How can Resilience be facilitated?
How can Engagement occur?
Gross motor skills:
Physical skills that involve the large muscles.
Fine motor skills:
Physical skills that involve the small muscles and hand-eye coordination.
The practicle knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes.
Social speech:
Speech intended to be understood by a listener.
Private speech:
Talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate.
Emergent literacy:
Preschoolers’ development of skills, knowledge and attitudes that underlie reading and writing.
Retention of memories for future use.
Process by which information is accessed or recalled from memory storage.
Process by which information is prepared for long term storage and later retrieval.
Ability to reproduce material from memory.
Prospective memory:
Remembering to perform future actions.
Generic memory:
Memory that produces scripts of familiar routines to guide behavior.
General, remembered outline of a familiar, repeated event, used to guide behavior.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale:
Individual intelligence test used to measure memory, spatial orientation and practical judgment.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised (WPPSI-R):
Individual intelligence test for children ages 3 to 7yrs, which yields verbal and performance scores as well as a combined score.
Sense of self – desciptive and evaluative mental picture of one’s abilities and traits.
Cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself.
Real self:
The self one actually is.
Ideal self:
The self one would like to be.
Self esteem:
The judgement a person makes about his or her self-worth.
Gender identity:
Awareness, developed in early childhood, that one is male or female.
Gender roles:
Behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills and traits that a culture considers appropriate for males or for females.
Socialisation process whereby children, at an early age, learn appropriate gender roles.
Gender stereotypes:
Preconceived generalisations about male or female role behavior.
Gender constancy:
Awareness that one will always be male or female.
Social cognitive theory:
Bandura’s expansion of social learning theory – holds that children learn gender roles through socialisation.
Functional play:
Play involving repetitive muscular movements.
Constructive play:
Play involving use of objects or materials to make something.
Pretend play:
Play involving imaginary people or situations – also known as fantasy, dramatic or imaginative play.
Methods od molding childrens character and of teaching them to exercise self-control and engage in acceptable behavior.
Corporal punishment:
Use of physical force with the intention of causing pain, but not injury, to correct or control behavior.
Power assertion:
Disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control.,
Inductive techniques:
Disciplinary techniques designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child’s sense of reason and fairness.
Withdrawal of love:
Disciplinary strategy that may involve ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child.
Parental style emphasizing control and obedience.
Parental style emphasizing self-expression and self-regulation.
Parental style blending respect for a child’s individuality with an effort to instill social values.
Parents focusing on their own needs, rather than those of the child.
Reversion to an earlier or less mature pattern of feeling or behavior.
Physical abuse:
Infliction of bodily injury on a child.
Sexual abuse:
Sexual activity involving a child and an older person.
Emotional maltreatment:
Actiopn or inaction that may cause behavioural, cognitive, emotional or mental disorders.
Rough-and-tumble play:
Vigorous play involving wrestling, hitting and chasing, often accompanied by laughing and screaming.
Convergent thinking:
Thinking aimed at finding the one right answer to a problem.
Divergent thinking:
Thinking that produces a variety of fresh, diverse possibilities.
Transitional stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise moment-to-moment self-regulation.
Aggression deliberately and persistently directed at a particular target, or victim, typically one who is weak, vulnerable, and defenceless.
Protective factors:
Influences that reduce the impact of early stress and tend to predict positive outcomes.
Principles of Solution Focused Nursing (SFN):
It is about the person, not the problem – Nurse to move beyond illness-care towards adaptation and recovery – 3 levels of change: patient, nurse and society – proactive approach: joining, building and extending.
Notice a patient’s strengths – Move beyond problem talk to goaling by saying: “What do you call what happened to you?” & “If this session was to go well, how would you know?”.
Invite conversation to get to know patient – Build skills and coping – Assess change through scaling questions: “If 10 is where you want to be, where are you now?” – Reinforce change by noticing small changes, offering praise and marking signs of progress with celebrations.
Extend these: practice sessions, co-opt family and social supports – Recruit support from patient’s family...etc, celebrate change to motivate, Once recovered, invite patient to become proactive, prepare for possible setbacks, review counselling process, so you can improve.
Knowing, appreciating the good within the self, as well as being and doing good for others – Picturing self in good place – connecting with others – Consciously putting distance between problem and self – Accessing cultural sources – Rejecting negative view of self – Being able to bounce back.

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