Glossary of Psychology chapter 1 cards

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def. biological approach
The view that behavior is the result of physical processes, especially those relating to the brain, 2 hormones, & 2 other chemicals
def. engineering psychologists
Psychologists who study & try to improve the relationships between human beings & the computers & other machines they use.
def. forensic psychologists
psychologists who are involved in many aspects as psychology and law
def. sport psychologists
psychologists whose research is aimed at maximizing athletic performance
def. educational psychologists
psychologists who study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results 2 improving such methods
def. health psychologists
psychologist who study the effects of behavior on health and the impact of illness on behavior and emotion
def. industrial/orginizational psychologists
psychologists who examine factors that influence people's performance in the workplace
def. social psychologists
psychologists who study how people influence one another's behavior and attitudes, especially in groups
def. school psychologists
psychologists who test iq, diagnose students; academic problems, and set up programs to improve students' achievement
def. consciousness
the awareness of external stimuli and our own mental activity
def. empiricism
the view that knowledge comes from experience and observation
def. environmental psychologists
psychologist who study the relationship between people's physical environment and their behavior
def. sociocultural variables
social identity and other background factors, such as gender, ethnicity, social class, and culture
humanistic characteristic
emphasizes individual potential 4 growth and the role of unique perceptions in guiding behavior and mental processes
cognitive characteristic
emphasizes mechanisms through whcih people receive, store, retrieve, and otherwise process information
behavioral characteristic
emphasizes learning, especially each person's experience with rewards and punishments
psychodynamic characteristic
emphasizes internal conflicts, mostly unconscious, which usually pit sexual or aggressive instincts against environmental obstacles 2 their expression
evolutionary characteristic
emphasizes the ways in which behavior and mental processes are adaptive 4 survival
biological characteristic
emphasizes activity of the nervous system, especially of the brain; the action of hormones and other chemicals and genetics
def. humanistic approach
a view of behavior as controlled by the decisions that people make about their lives based on their perceptions of the world
def. cognitive approach
a view that emphasizes research on how the brain takes in information, creates perceptions, forms and retireves memories, processes information, and generates integrated patterns of action
def. behavioral approach
a view based on the assumption that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned in life, especailly by rewards and punishments
def. psychodynamic approach
a view developed by Freud emphasizing unconscious mental processes in explaining human thought, feelings, and behavior
def. evolutionary approach
a view that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes
def. variables
specific factors or characteristics that can take on different numerical values in research
def. operational definitions
statements that define phenomena or variables by describing the exact research operations or methods used in measuring or manipulating them
def. hypothesis
in scientific research, a specific,testable proposition about a phenomenon
def. critical thinking
the process of assessing claims and making judgements on the basis of well-supported evidence
def. culture
the accumulation of values, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious beliefs, and occupational choices 4 a group of people who share a common language and environment
def. statistically significant
referring 2 a correlation or a difference between 2 groups, that is larger than would be expected by chance
def. correlation
the degree in which 1 variable is related to another
def. data
numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for conclusions
def. biased sample
a group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen 4 study
def. random sample
a group of research participants selected from a population each of whose members had an equal chance of being chosen
def. sampling
the process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study
def. double blind design
a research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group
def. experimenter bias
a confounding variable that occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants 2 respond in a way that supports the hypothesis
def. placebo
a treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it will
def. random assignment
a procedure through which random variables are evenly distributed in an experiment by placing participants in experimental and control groups on the basis of a coin flip or some other random process
def. random variables
uncontrolled or uncontrollable factors that affect the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable
def. confounding variable
any fact that affects the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable
def. control group
the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which 2 compare the performance or response of the experimental group
def. experimental group
the group that receives the experimental treatment
def. dependent variables
in an experiment, the factor affected by the independent variable
def. independent variable
in an experiment, the variable manipulated by the researcher
def. experiment
a situation in which the researcher manipulates 1 variable and observes the effect of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant
def. surveys
research that involves giving people questionaires or interviews, designed 2 describe their attitides, beliefs, opinions, and intentions
def. case studies
research involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a praticular individual, group, or situation
def. naturalistic observation
the process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment
def. theory
an integrated set of propositions used 2 explain certain phenomena, including behavior and mental processes
def. validity
the degree to which evidence from a test or other research evidence occurs repeatedly
def. reliability
the degree 2 which test results or other research evidence occurs repeatedly
founders Gestalt Psychology
Max Wertheimer
Goals Gestalt Psychology
2 describe organization of mental processes; "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
methods of Gestalt Psychology
observation of sensory/perceptual phenomena
founders psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
Goals Psychoanalysis
2 explain personality and behavior, to develop techniques for treating mental disorders
Methods of Psychoanalysis
study of individual cases
founders functionalism
William James
Goals Functionalism
2 study how the mind works in allowing an organism 2 adapt 2 the environment

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