Glossary of Psychology chap 2 set one

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an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena
idea that all events-- physical, mental, and behavioral--are the result of, or determined by, specific causal factors
a tentative and testable statement about the relationship between causes and consequences
a general set of procedures for gathering and interpreting evidence in ways that limit sources of errors and yield dependable conclusions
scientific method
other researchers must have the opportunity to inspect, criticize, replicate, or disprove the data and methods
public verifiability
an error due to the personal motives and expectations of the viewer
observer bias
using uniform, consistent procedures in all phases of data collection
standardizes meaning within an experiment by defining a concept in terms of specific operations or procedures used to measure it or to determine its presence
operational definition
any factor that varies in amount or kind
factor that the researcher functions as the causal part of the relationship
independent variable
what the experimenter measures
dependent variable
manipulate an independent variable to look for an effect on a dependent variable
experimental methods
when something other than what an experimenter purposely introduces into a research setting changes a participant's behavior and adds confusion to the interpretation of the data
confounding variable
the researcher or observer subtly communicates to the research participants the behaviors he or she expects to find--thereby producing the desired reaction
expectancy effect
experimental participants change their behavior in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation
placebo effect
methods that attempt to hold constant all variables and conditions other than those related to the hypothesis being tested
control procedures
bias is eliminated by keeping both experimental assistants and participants unaware of, or blind to, which participants get which treatment
double-blind control
researchers include an experimental condition in which the treatment is not administered
placebo control
a sample that closely matches the overall characteristics of the population
representative sample
uses each participant as his or her own control
within-subjects design
the consistency or dependability of behavioral data resulting from psychological testing or experimental research
the information produced by research or testing accurately measures the psychological variable or quality it is intended to measure
verbal answers, written or spoken, to questions the researcher poses
self-report measures
positive social relationship with the respondent that encourages trust and the sharing of personal information
intensive observation of a single individual or a small group
case study
researcher provides as much information about the study as possible and makes sure that no one leaes feeling confused, upset, or embarrassed
studied the phenomenon of expectancy bias and how it can distort research results
Robert Rosenthal
spent more than 30 years studying patterns of behavior among chimpanzees
Jane Goodall

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