Glossary of Psychology Vocabulary (Exam 4)
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- A newborn infant up to 1 month old.
- Inborn, unlearned, automatic responses (such as blinking, sucking, and grasping) to certain environment stimuli
- Each infant's own genetically determined, biological pattern of development
- An apparatus used to measure infants' ability to perceive depth
"can descriminated depth as soon as they can crawl"
- Visual Cliff
- A decrease in response or attention to a stimulus as an infant becomes accustomed to it.
(triangle and circle)
- Reflexes Present at Birth
- ~Swallowing, sucking, coughing, and blinking.
~Move arm or leg, or other body part away from a painful stimuls and will try to remove a blanket or cloth placed over face
- Stroke a baby on the cheek, and you will trigger this. The baby opens its mouth and searches for nipple etc.
- Rooting Reflex
- Evidence of learning in infants
- Harlow's experiments of attachment in infant monkeys
- •The monkeys attached to the comforted cloth monkey mother for nourishment. Contact comfort
- The early, close relationship formed between infant and caregiver.
- Father-child relationship
(without a father)
- Neg: child exhibits antisocial behavior, such as deceitfulness and aggression, are more likely to demonstrate such behavior themselves.
- Father-child relationship
(with a father)
- Children with fathers experience higher IQs and do better in social situations and at coping w/ frustration.
- The mental process of modifying existing schemes and creating new ones in order to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, and information
~changing structure. Balls bounce but oranges don’t even though they are both round etc.
- The mental process by which new objects, events, experiences, and information are incorporated into existing schemes.
~child has a little toy hammer and parent buys him a new wrench. Instead of using it as a wrench the child still uses it like a ham
- Piaget's term for a mental process that uses specific experiences to make inferences that can be generalized to new experiences
- A plan of action based on previous experiences, to be used in similar circumstances
- The mental process that motivates humans to keep schemes in balance with the real environment
- Piaget's four stages of cognitive development
- 1) Sensorimotor stage (ages birth to 2 yrs)
2) Preoperational Stage (ages 2-6 yrs)
3)Concrete Operations Stage (ages 6 to 11 yrs)
4) Formal Operations Stage (Ages 11 or 12 yrs and beyond)
- Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, in which infants gain an understanding of their world through their senses and their motor activites; culminates with the development of object permanence and the beginning of representational thought.
- Sensorimotor stage
- The realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
- Object permanence
- Paiget's second stage of cognitive development, which is characterized by the development and refinement of schemes for symbolic representation.
- Preoperational Stage
- A preoperational child's tendency to focus on only one dimension of a stimulus
- Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, during which a child acquires the concepts of reversibility and conservation and is able to attend to two or more dimensions of a stimulus at the same time.
- Concrete Operations Stage
- The fact that when only the appearance of a substance has been changed, it can be returned to its original state
(concrete op. stage)
- Understanding that a given quantity of matter remains the same if it is rearranged or changed in its appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away.
(concrete op. stage)
- Piaget's fourth and final stage of cog. development, which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.
- Formal operations stage
- Ainsworth’s four patterns of attachment
- 1)Secure (seek mother)
2)avoidant (ignore mother)
3)resident (insecure, upset)
Most common: secure
- Parents who set high but realistic and resonable standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence
- Authoritative Parents
- Parents who make few rules or demands and usually do not enforce those that are made; they allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior
- Permissive Parents
- Parents who are permissive and are not involved in their children's lives
- Neglecting Parents
- The process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values
- Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority
- Authoritarian Parents
- Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Theory
- 1) Trust/attachment
2) Shame or doubt may result
4) Elementary school years
4)identity when an adolescent (identity versus role and confusion)
5) Adolescents must integrate
6) Primary adult goal: get & give care
7) Middle Age~productive work
8) Old age involves looking back on life
- The emotional turmoil a teen experiences when trying to establish a sense of personal identity
(erikson's 8 stages)
- Identity Crisis
- The development stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood
- Those physical characteristics that are not directly involved in reproduction but distinguish the mature male from the mature female
- Secondary Sex Characteristics
- The ablilty to thnk about and control one's momory processes
- Kohlberg's first level of moral reasoning, in which moral reasoning is governed by the standards of others rather than the person's own internalized standards of right and wrong; acts are judged as good or as bad based on their physical consequences
- preconventional level
- Kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning, in which the individual has internalized the standards of others and judges right and wrong in terms of those standards
- Conventional level
- Kohlberg's highest level of moral reasoning, in which moral reasoning involves weighing moral alternatives and realizing that laws may conflict with basic human rights
- Postconventional level
- a type of intelligence comprising verbal ability and accumulated knowledge, which tend to increase over the lifespan
- Crystallized Intelligence
- A type of intelligence comprising abstract reasoing and mental flexibility, which peak in the early 20s and decline slowly as people age.
- Fluid Intelligence
- A group of neuraological disorders in which problems with memory and thinking affect an individual's emotional, social, and physical deterioration of the brain.
- A progressive and incurable disorder that involves widespread degeneration and disruption of brain cells, resulting in dementia
- Alzheimer's Disease
- The pair of chromosomes that determines the biological sex of a person (XX females and XY males)
- Sex chromosomes
- Physiological status as male or female
- Biological sex
- The sex glands, the ovaries in females and the testes in males
- male sex hormones
- the internal and external reproductive organs; the genitals
- primary sex characteristics
- the physical characteristics that appear at puberty and are associated with sexual maturity but not directly involved in reproduction
- secondary sex characteristics
- the psychological and sociocultural definition of masculinity or feminity, based on the expected behaviors for males and females
- Cultural expectations about the behaviors appropriate to each gender
- Gender roles
- The process by which individuals acquire the traits, behaviors, attitudes, preferences, and interests that the culture considers appropriate for their biological sex.
- Gender typing
- The understanding that activities and clothes dont affect geneder stability; acquired between ages 6 and 8
- gender constancy
- The awareness that gender is a permanent characteristic; acquired between ages 4 and 5
- Gender stability
- The sense of being male or female; acquired between ages 2 and 3
- Gender identity
- A theory suggesting that young children are motivated to attend to and behave in ways consistent with gender-based standards and stereotypes of their culture
- gender schema theory
- A combination of desirable masculine ad feminine characteristics in one person
- according to Masters and Johnson, the typical pattern of the human sexual response in both males and females, consisting of four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
- Sexual Response Cycle
- The first stage of the sexual response cycle, characterized by an erection in males and a swelling of the clitoris and vaginal lubrication in females
- Excitement Phase
- The second stage of the sexual response cycle, during which muscle tension and blood flow to the genitals increase in preperation for orgasm.
- Plateau Phase
- The third stage of the sexual response cycle, marked by a sudden discharge of accumulated sexual tension and involuntary muscle contractions
- the final stage of the sexual response cycle, during which the body returns to an unaroused state.
- Resolution phase
- A female sex hormone that promotes the secondary sex characteristics in females and controls the menstraul cycle
- A female sex hormone that plays a role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and prepares the lining of the uterus for pregnancy
- The most important androgen, which influences the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics and sexual motivation and, in small amounts, maintains sexual interest and responsivenss in females
- The direction of one's sexual preference, erotic feelings, and sexual activity- toward members of the opposite sex (heterosexuals), toward one's own sex (homosexuals), or toward both sexuals (bisexuals)
- Sexual Orientation
- A persistent or recurrent problem that causes marked distress and interpersonal difficulty and that may involve some combination of the following: sexual desire, sexual arousal or the pleasure associated with sex, or orgasm.
- Sexual Dysfunction
- A sexual dysfunction marked by low or nonexistent sexual desire or interest in sexual activity.
- Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.
- A sexual dysfunction characterized by an aversion to and active avoidance of genitals contact with a sexual partner
- Sexual Aversion Disorder
- A sexual dysfunction in which a woman may not feel sexually aroused in response to sexual stimulation or may be unable to achieve or sustain an adequate lubrication-swelling response to sexual excitement
- Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
- A sexual dysfunction in which a man experiences the repeated inability to have or sustain an erection firm enought for coitus
- Male erectile disorder
- A sexual dysfunction in which a woman is persistently unable to reach orgasm or delays in reaching orgasm, despite adequate sexual stimulation
- Female orgasmic disorder
- Infections that are spread primarily through intimate sexual contact
- Sexually transmitted diseases (STDS)
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