Glossary of Psychology Test 2 Chapter 6

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What are the 4 nodes of the memory network?
stimulus, sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
What does the sensory memory do?
Preserves info about stimulus in original form for brief amount of time
How long does your short-term memory retain info?
20 seconds
How many individual memories does your short-term memory retain?
repeated verbalizing or thinking about information to obtain
capacity of long term memory?
transferring memories from short to long term. often fails us, active decision
taking info from long term to short term. demonstrates learning
how are memories stored? and how does this work?
semantic networks. concepts are linked together in related ways
forgetting curve?
sharp drop in memory immediately after
decay theory of forgetting?
memories decay with time
interference theory of forgetting?
other info interferes with the info we're trying to remember. eg. sleeping after memorization drills vs. doing other activities
2 types of interference?
1. proactive- before learning experience
2. retroactive- after learning experience
method of loci
tag items to particular location
depth of processing?
we recall info better if we relate it to personal experience
hierarchial organization?
organization improves memory
context reinstatement?
easier to recall info if you're in the setting where it was learned
sometimes studying even when you already know the material really well actually helps memory
bilateral medial temporal lobectomy
hippocampi in both hemispheres cut out. can treat epilepsy. severe anterograde amnesia. also retrograde amnesia.
2 types of memory?
explicit- declarative. effort.
implicit- non-declaraive. skills.
hippocampus importance?
memory consolidation. short-term to long-term. explicit, not implicit.
according to the information processing model, what three things must be done for memory
1. draws attention
2. is encoded
3. is retrieved
iconic memory?
fleeting sensory memory where an image is remembered for a second
echoic memory?
iconic memory except for sounds
how do we encode verbal information and what are the implications of this?
acoustic terms (not semantic). therefore we're more likely to confuse words that sound alike than words that have similar meanings
groups help memory
working memory?
aka short term memory. mental workspace for information to be processed. "central executive" processor and 2 storage-and-rehersal systems (auditory and visual)
serial position curve?
u-shaped curve. primacy and recency. we remember beginning and end
elaborative rehersal?
strategy of remembering that involves thinking about things a certain way and associating it with other knowledge in long term
procedural memory?
stored long-term knowledge of learnedhabits and skills
declarative memory?
stored long-term knowledge of facts about ourselves and the world
lexical decision making
experiment where subjects must decide as quickly as posible whether a string of letters is a word or not
physical memory trace
principle of encoding specificity?
any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger one's memory of that experience
3 types of dissociation.
1. false-fram effect- famous people experiment
2. eyewitness transference- person they see in one situation is "transferred" to another
3. unintentional plagiarism
4 reasons people forget?
1. lack of encoding
2. decay
3. interference
4. repression
preconceptions about people, places, events, that bias the way info is interpreted and recalled
misinformation effect?
tendency to incorporate postevent info into one's memory of event
autobiographical memory?
memory about ourselves
flashbulb memories?
highly vivid and enduring memories, typically for dramatic and emotional events
childhood amnesia
we can't remember anything from before we were 3
hindsight bias
we think we always knew things were going to end up the way that they ended up.

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