Glossary of Psychology Test 2 Chapter 6
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- What are the 4 nodes of the memory network?
- stimulus, sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
- What does the sensory memory do?
- Preserves info about stimulus in original form for brief amount of time
- How long does your short-term memory retain info?
- 20 seconds
- How many individual memories does your short-term memory retain?
- repeated verbalizing or thinking about information to obtain
- capacity of long term memory?
- transferring memories from short to long term. often fails us, active decision
- taking info from long term to short term. demonstrates learning
- how are memories stored? and how does this work?
- semantic networks. concepts are linked together in related ways
- forgetting curve?
- sharp drop in memory immediately after
- decay theory of forgetting?
- memories decay with time
- interference theory of forgetting?
- other info interferes with the info we're trying to remember. eg. sleeping after memorization drills vs. doing other activities
- 2 types of interference?
- 1. proactive- before learning experience
2. retroactive- after learning experience
- method of loci
- tag items to particular location
- depth of processing?
- we recall info better if we relate it to personal experience
- hierarchial organization?
- organization improves memory
- context reinstatement?
- easier to recall info if you're in the setting where it was learned
- sometimes studying even when you already know the material really well actually helps memory
- bilateral medial temporal lobectomy
- hippocampi in both hemispheres cut out. can treat epilepsy. severe anterograde amnesia. also retrograde amnesia.
- 2 types of memory?
- explicit- declarative. effort.
implicit- non-declaraive. skills.
- hippocampus importance?
- memory consolidation. short-term to long-term. explicit, not implicit.
- according to the information processing model, what three things must be done for memory
- 1. draws attention
2. is encoded
3. is retrieved
- iconic memory?
- fleeting sensory memory where an image is remembered for a second
- echoic memory?
- iconic memory except for sounds
- how do we encode verbal information and what are the implications of this?
- acoustic terms (not semantic). therefore we're more likely to confuse words that sound alike than words that have similar meanings
- groups help memory
- working memory?
- aka short term memory. mental workspace for information to be processed. "central executive" processor and 2 storage-and-rehersal systems (auditory and visual)
- serial position curve?
- u-shaped curve. primacy and recency. we remember beginning and end
- elaborative rehersal?
- strategy of remembering that involves thinking about things a certain way and associating it with other knowledge in long term
- procedural memory?
- stored long-term knowledge of learnedhabits and skills
- declarative memory?
- stored long-term knowledge of facts about ourselves and the world
- lexical decision making
- experiment where subjects must decide as quickly as posible whether a string of letters is a word or not
- physical memory trace
- principle of encoding specificity?
- any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger one's memory of that experience
- 3 types of dissociation.
- 1. false-fram effect- famous people experiment
2. eyewitness transference- person they see in one situation is "transferred" to another
3. unintentional plagiarism
- 4 reasons people forget?
- 1. lack of encoding
- preconceptions about people, places, events, that bias the way info is interpreted and recalled
- misinformation effect?
- tendency to incorporate postevent info into one's memory of event
- autobiographical memory?
- memory about ourselves
- flashbulb memories?
- highly vivid and enduring memories, typically for dramatic and emotional events
- childhood amnesia
- we can't remember anything from before we were 3
- hindsight bias
- we think we always knew things were going to end up the way that they ended up.
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