Glossary of Psychology Test 2 Chapter 5

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What is learning?
Process by which experience changes behavior
What are the 5 basic types of learning?
habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning
Explain habituation
decreased strength of response when situmuls is repeated. Eg. Poking
Explain sensitization
increased/exaggerated response to stimulus. Induces heightened state of vigilance. Eg. Slap then poke
What is Pavlovian conditioning?
classical conditioning
explain classical conditioning
learning by association between 2 events. Eg. Pavlov & the dogs
Explain the significance of neutral, unconditioned, conditioned stimuli and responses
unconditioned stimulus- something that w/o training will cause a physiological response. Eg. Food. Unconditioned response- automatic physiological response to some given stimulus. Eg. Drool. Neutral stimuls- some random stimulus that w/o conditioning has no response. conditioned stimulus- when the neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral becomes conditioned because of conditioning. Eg. bell + food. conditioned response- the response due to the conditioned stimulus. Eg. drool after conditioning.
Explain extinction
When the CS is no longer followed by a US, the CS loses the ability to produce the CR
Explain operant conditioning.
allows the organism to adjust its behavior according to consequences.
What is the device used to test operant conditioning?
Operant chamber or Skinner box.
Explain the differences between positive and negative reinforcement and punishment.
positive reinforcement = Positive stimulus applied in order to increase behavior. Positive punishment = Negative stimulus applied in order to decrease behavior. Negative reinforcement = negative stimulus removed in order to increase behavior. Negative punishment = Positive stimulus removed in order to decrease behavior.
What are the 2 types of reinforcers in operant conditioning
primary- inately satisfying. Eg. Food, sex. Secondary- associated with a primary reinforcer. Eg. Money
Explain partial reinforcement schedules
the behavior is not always reinforced. More resistant to extinction
what are the 4 types of partial reinforcement schedules
fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval.
Explain fixed and variable ratio scheduling.
fixed- reinforcer given after fixed # of responses. Eg. Every 10th time. FR 10. variable- reinforcer given after variable # of reponses around a certain average. Eg. Avg 10th time = VR 10.
Explain fixed and variable interval scheduling.
fixed- reinforcer given after 1st response after fixed pd. Of time. EG. Every 2 min. FI 2. variable- same as FI, but over average. Eg. Avg 3 min- VI 3
what is shaping?
process by which reinforcers are gradually adminitered to guide organisms' behavior to a goal.
explain observational learning.
organism's behavior is influence by observation of behavior of others. Mostly occurs in social behaviors in children.
What is modeling?
observing & imitating.
What is the significance of the Bandura experiment?
Bobo doll experiment. Aggressive behavior is modelled!
What are the 4 basic principles of learning?
accquisition, extinction, generalization, discrimination
Explain generalization.
the same response to a similar stimulus. Eg. Dogs drooling with different tones
Explain discrimination.
differentiating between similar stimuli, after generalizing. Eg. Black square vs. gray square.
Explain adaptiveness.
We are more "prepared" by nature to learn certain CS-US relationships than others. Eg. Stomach ache more likely caused by food ingested than other physical injury.
What are fear modules and their characteristics?
automatic differential responses to fear-relevant objects. Characteristics: 1. highly selective. 2. automatic. 3. hard to consciously control/avoid. 4. controlled by amygdala and hippocampus (primritive brain parts)
What is the law of effect?
behaviors followed by a positive response are repeated, those not aren't.
What is instinctive drift?
tendency of animals to revert to species-specific behavior patterns that at times interfere with shaping.
What is latent learning?
Learning that lies dormant and is not exhibited until there is an incentive to do so. Eg. Rats in maze, no food until 11th day
What are the 4 steps in the modeling process?
attention, retention, reproduction, motivation

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