Glossary of Psychology Test 2 Chapter 5
Other Decks By This User
- What is learning?
- Process by which experience changes behavior
- What are the 5 basic types of learning?
- habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning
- Explain habituation
- decreased strength of response when situmuls is repeated. Eg. Poking
- Explain sensitization
- increased/exaggerated response to stimulus. Induces heightened state of vigilance. Eg. Slap then poke
- What is Pavlovian conditioning?
- classical conditioning
- explain classical conditioning
- learning by association between 2 events. Eg. Pavlov & the dogs
- Explain the significance of neutral, unconditioned, conditioned stimuli and responses
- unconditioned stimulus- something that w/o training will cause a physiological response. Eg. Food. Unconditioned response- automatic physiological response to some given stimulus. Eg. Drool. Neutral stimuls- some random stimulus that w/o conditioning has no response. conditioned stimulus- when the neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral becomes conditioned because of conditioning. Eg. bell + food. conditioned response- the response due to the conditioned stimulus. Eg. drool after conditioning.
- Explain extinction
- When the CS is no longer followed by a US, the CS loses the ability to produce the CR
- Explain operant conditioning.
- allows the organism to adjust its behavior according to consequences.
- What is the device used to test operant conditioning?
- Operant chamber or Skinner box.
- Explain the differences between positive and negative reinforcement and punishment.
- positive reinforcement = Positive stimulus applied in order to increase behavior. Positive punishment = Negative stimulus applied in order to decrease behavior. Negative reinforcement = negative stimulus removed in order to increase behavior. Negative punishment = Positive stimulus removed in order to decrease behavior.
- What are the 2 types of reinforcers in operant conditioning
- primary- inately satisfying. Eg. Food, sex. Secondary- associated with a primary reinforcer. Eg. Money
- Explain partial reinforcement schedules
- the behavior is not always reinforced. More resistant to extinction
- what are the 4 types of partial reinforcement schedules
- fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval.
- Explain fixed and variable ratio scheduling.
- fixed- reinforcer given after fixed # of responses. Eg. Every 10th time. FR 10. variable- reinforcer given after variable # of reponses around a certain average. Eg. Avg 10th time = VR 10.
- Explain fixed and variable interval scheduling.
- fixed- reinforcer given after 1st response after fixed pd. Of time. EG. Every 2 min. FI 2. variable- same as FI, but over average. Eg. Avg 3 min- VI 3
- what is shaping?
- process by which reinforcers are gradually adminitered to guide organisms' behavior to a goal.
- explain observational learning.
- organism's behavior is influence by observation of behavior of others. Mostly occurs in social behaviors in children.
- What is modeling?
- observing & imitating.
- What is the significance of the Bandura experiment?
- Bobo doll experiment. Aggressive behavior is modelled!
- What are the 4 basic principles of learning?
- accquisition, extinction, generalization, discrimination
- Explain generalization.
- the same response to a similar stimulus. Eg. Dogs drooling with different tones
- Explain discrimination.
- differentiating between similar stimuli, after generalizing. Eg. Black square vs. gray square.
- Explain adaptiveness.
- We are more "prepared" by nature to learn certain CS-US relationships than others. Eg. Stomach ache more likely caused by food ingested than other physical injury.
- What are fear modules and their characteristics?
- automatic differential responses to fear-relevant objects. Characteristics: 1. highly selective. 2. automatic. 3. hard to consciously control/avoid. 4. controlled by amygdala and hippocampus (primritive brain parts)
- What is the law of effect?
- behaviors followed by a positive response are repeated, those not aren't.
- What is instinctive drift?
- tendency of animals to revert to species-specific behavior patterns that at times interfere with shaping.
- What is latent learning?
- Learning that lies dormant and is not exhibited until there is an incentive to do so. Eg. Rats in maze, no food until 11th day
- What are the 4 steps in the modeling process?
- attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
You must Login or Register to add cards