Glossary of Psychology Test 2 Chapter 4

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Differentiate between consciousness and attention
consciousness- awareness about selves and environment
attention- STATE OF awarenessa bout selves and environment
What controls circadian rhythms?
internal and external stimuli
What are zeitgebers?
environmental cues that reset circadian rhythms to 24 hours
Explain the internal regulation of the sleep/wake cycle
controlled by SCN (suprachiasmatic nuclei). balls of neurons above optic nerves that are part of the hypothalamus. visual info reaches SCN. pinneal gland produces melatonin. more light = less melatonin. less light = more melatonin. melatonin facilitates sleep.
What are the 2 current sleep theories and explain the differences.
1. restorative theory- your body needs the rest after long day at work.
2.adaptive theory- our body forces us to conserve energy
What are the 5 symptoms of sleep deprivation?
1. irritability
2. difficulty concentrating
3. dizziness
4. muscle tremors
5. hallucinations
With regards to sleep deprivation, what 2 pieces of information are extremely important?
1. symptoms worsen with progressive deprivation
2. sleep deprivation can cause death
What is a yoked control group?
for every experimental subject, there is an exact corresponding control subject that receives the same exact treatment, minus the variable
What types of sleep belong to alpha, beta, theta, and delta waves?
alpha- presleep
beta- awake
theta- stage 1-2, REM
delta- stages 3-4
Characteristics of Stage 1 sleep
desynchronized neural activity
theta waves
Characteristics of Stage 2 sleep
desynchronized neural activity
theta waves
sleep spindles
K complexes
Characteristics of Stage 3 sleep
synchronized neural activity
delta waves
very similar to stage 4
Describe a theta wave
low amplitude
Describe a delta wave
low frequency, high amplitude
Characteristics of Stage 4 sleep
synchronized neural activity
delta waves
decrease in physiological activity
lasts 45 minutes
very similar to stage 3
Chracteristics of REM sleep
theta waves
associated with dreaming
90 min cycles
all mammals
plays additional role in emotional stress, long-term memories, creativity, etc.
what is hypnosis?
systematic procedure to induce state of heightened suggestibility
explain tolerance.
decreased sensitivity to a drug by repeated administration. higher dose needed for desired effect. not for all effects @ same rate
explain cross-tolerance
the repeated administration of 1 drug leads to tolerance of other drugs. eg. heroin develops cross-tolerance to painkillers
explain withdrawal.
physical illness with symptoms resulting from stopping drug use. indicates physical dependence. symptoms opposite of drug's initial effect. due to compensatory responses to drugs
differentiate between difference types of drug dependence.
physical dependence is characterized by withdrawal. crazing is psychological.
what are compensatory responses?
drugs puts your body out of equilibrium. your body automatically has compensatory responses. that's why the absence of drugs causes withdrawal.
what is the positive incentive theory?
the primary reason for drug addiction is pleasure-producting properties.
explain disinhibition
result of 1-3 drinks
areas of brain that normally inhibit behabior are themselves inhibitted
motor coordination, reaction time, reflexes, and personal judgment affected
drink is oblivious
what is the cocktail party phenomenon?
ability to attend selectively to one person's speech amidst competing conversation.
evidence of divided attention
Explain Freud's three levels of awareness.
1. conscious sensation, thoughts, feelings
2. preconscious material- easy to bring to mind, but out of awareness
3. unconscious reservoir of material- suppressed from awareness
What's Freud's theory of dreaming?
everyone has unconscious sexual and aggressive urges to satisfy, which they do whily sleeping
What are the 2 types of dream content, according to Freud?
1. manifest content- the dream remembered in the morning
2. latent content- the underlying thoughts, urges, conflicts, needs
What's the mere exposure effect?
the more often you see a simulus, the more you like it, regardless of awareness
Explain priming
tendency for recently presented words/concepts to facilitate responses in a subsequent situation. motivations and emotions are subject to influence w/o awareness
What is blindsight?
damage to the visual cortex. the optic nerve fibers from eyes are still connected to regions producing visual information. result = conscious blindness, but unconscious visual perceptions
What is the Stroop effect?
highly practiced activities can actually inhibit other activities. named for Stroop and the stroop color test.
What 2 pieces of evidence support the notion that REM is biologically adaptive?
1. all mammals have REM sleep
2. amount of REM sleep is greatest in early life when the most development occurs
What is lucid dreaming?
dreaming and knowing you're in a dream. you can even sometimes control content and outcome of dreams.
What is the activation synthesis theory?
theory of dreams.
presented by Hobson and McCarley.
random neural signals firing in brainstem spread to cortex (activation)
brain draws on past experiences in memory.
result = images to make sense of random signals (dream... synthesis)
Describe the significance of the dream studies of Brown and colleagues.
PET scans.
limbic regions highly active (motivations and emotions)
frontal loves inactive (attention, planning logic)
explains why dreams are illogical.
What is narcolepsy?
sleep seizures. people randomly fall asleep during the day with no control over it.
what is sleep apnea?
people stop breathing while sleeping, causing them to wake up. this deprives them of much needed REM sleep.
what is REM sleep behabior disorder (RBD)?
skeletal muscles don't become paralyzed during REM sleep. people act out nightmares, which is dangerous.
What is hypnotic suceptibility and what is an important characteristic?
a person's responsivenss to hypnosis and it varies from person to person
explain hypermnesia
highly focused and relaxed state of mind produced by hypnosis that enhances memory
what is dissociation?
division of consciousness into 2 or more parts that operate independently and are separated by an "amnesic barrier"
What are barbiturates and benzodiazepines examples of?
What are amphetamines?
synthetic stimulants.

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