Glossary of Psychology Test 2 Chapter 4
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- Differentiate between consciousness and attention
- consciousness- awareness about selves and environment
attention- STATE OF awarenessa bout selves and environment
- What controls circadian rhythms?
- internal and external stimuli
- What are zeitgebers?
- environmental cues that reset circadian rhythms to 24 hours
- Explain the internal regulation of the sleep/wake cycle
- controlled by SCN (suprachiasmatic nuclei). balls of neurons above optic nerves that are part of the hypothalamus. visual info reaches SCN. pinneal gland produces melatonin. more light = less melatonin. less light = more melatonin. melatonin facilitates sleep.
- What are the 2 current sleep theories and explain the differences.
- 1. restorative theory- your body needs the rest after long day at work.
2.adaptive theory- our body forces us to conserve energy
- What are the 5 symptoms of sleep deprivation?
- 1. irritability
2. difficulty concentrating
4. muscle tremors
- With regards to sleep deprivation, what 2 pieces of information are extremely important?
- 1. symptoms worsen with progressive deprivation
2. sleep deprivation can cause death
- What is a yoked control group?
- for every experimental subject, there is an exact corresponding control subject that receives the same exact treatment, minus the variable
- What types of sleep belong to alpha, beta, theta, and delta waves?
- alpha- presleep
theta- stage 1-2, REM
delta- stages 3-4
- Characteristics of Stage 1 sleep
- desynchronized neural activity
- Characteristics of Stage 2 sleep
- desynchronized neural activity
- Characteristics of Stage 3 sleep
- synchronized neural activity
very similar to stage 4
- Describe a theta wave
- low amplitude
- Describe a delta wave
- low frequency, high amplitude
- Characteristics of Stage 4 sleep
- synchronized neural activity
decrease in physiological activity
lasts 45 minutes
very similar to stage 3
- Chracteristics of REM sleep
- theta waves
associated with dreaming
90 min cycles
plays additional role in emotional stress, long-term memories, creativity, etc.
- what is hypnosis?
- systematic procedure to induce state of heightened suggestibility
- explain tolerance.
- decreased sensitivity to a drug by repeated administration. higher dose needed for desired effect. not for all effects @ same rate
- explain cross-tolerance
- the repeated administration of 1 drug leads to tolerance of other drugs. eg. heroin develops cross-tolerance to painkillers
- explain withdrawal.
- physical illness with symptoms resulting from stopping drug use. indicates physical dependence. symptoms opposite of drug's initial effect. due to compensatory responses to drugs
- differentiate between difference types of drug dependence.
- physical dependence is characterized by withdrawal. crazing is psychological.
- what are compensatory responses?
- drugs puts your body out of equilibrium. your body automatically has compensatory responses. that's why the absence of drugs causes withdrawal.
- what is the positive incentive theory?
- the primary reason for drug addiction is pleasure-producting properties.
- explain disinhibition
- result of 1-3 drinks
areas of brain that normally inhibit behabior are themselves inhibitted
motor coordination, reaction time, reflexes, and personal judgment affected
drink is oblivious
- what is the cocktail party phenomenon?
- ability to attend selectively to one person's speech amidst competing conversation.
evidence of divided attention
- Explain Freud's three levels of awareness.
- 1. conscious sensation, thoughts, feelings
2. preconscious material- easy to bring to mind, but out of awareness
3. unconscious reservoir of material- suppressed from awareness
- What's Freud's theory of dreaming?
- everyone has unconscious sexual and aggressive urges to satisfy, which they do whily sleeping
- What are the 2 types of dream content, according to Freud?
- 1. manifest content- the dream remembered in the morning
2. latent content- the underlying thoughts, urges, conflicts, needs
- What's the mere exposure effect?
- the more often you see a simulus, the more you like it, regardless of awareness
- Explain priming
- tendency for recently presented words/concepts to facilitate responses in a subsequent situation. motivations and emotions are subject to influence w/o awareness
- What is blindsight?
- damage to the visual cortex. the optic nerve fibers from eyes are still connected to regions producing visual information. result = conscious blindness, but unconscious visual perceptions
- What is the Stroop effect?
- highly practiced activities can actually inhibit other activities. named for Stroop and the stroop color test.
- What 2 pieces of evidence support the notion that REM is biologically adaptive?
- 1. all mammals have REM sleep
2. amount of REM sleep is greatest in early life when the most development occurs
- What is lucid dreaming?
- dreaming and knowing you're in a dream. you can even sometimes control content and outcome of dreams.
- What is the activation synthesis theory?
- theory of dreams.
presented by Hobson and McCarley.
random neural signals firing in brainstem spread to cortex (activation)
brain draws on past experiences in memory.
result = images to make sense of random signals (dream... synthesis)
- Describe the significance of the dream studies of Brown and colleagues.
- PET scans.
limbic regions highly active (motivations and emotions)
frontal loves inactive (attention, planning logic)
explains why dreams are illogical.
- What is narcolepsy?
- sleep seizures. people randomly fall asleep during the day with no control over it.
- what is sleep apnea?
- people stop breathing while sleeping, causing them to wake up. this deprives them of much needed REM sleep.
- what is REM sleep behabior disorder (RBD)?
- skeletal muscles don't become paralyzed during REM sleep. people act out nightmares, which is dangerous.
- What is hypnotic suceptibility and what is an important characteristic?
- a person's responsivenss to hypnosis and it varies from person to person
- explain hypermnesia
- highly focused and relaxed state of mind produced by hypnosis that enhances memory
- what is dissociation?
- division of consciousness into 2 or more parts that operate independently and are separated by an "amnesic barrier"
- What are barbiturates and benzodiazepines examples of?
- What are amphetamines?
- synthetic stimulants.