Glossary of Psychology Study Guide CLEP 7th Ed CH. 1

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Psychology is defined as
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state and the external environment.
The main difference between psychological knowledge and popular opinion is that
Psychological knowledge is based on research evidence, popular opinion is not.
Unhappy memories are often repressed and then later recalled accurately, most women suffer from emothional symptoms of "PMS," abstinence from alcohol reduce rates of alcoholism are all examples of
Common beliefs that have been contradicted by the evidence.
The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion and anecdote defines
Critical thinking.
Which of the following is one of the essential elements of critical thinking?
Ask questions; be willing to wonder.

Examine the evidence.

Avoid emotional reasoning: "If I feel this way, it must be true."
Who established the first psychology lab in 1879 and is considered the "father of psychology?"
Wilhelm Wundt.
An early school of psychology, popularized by E.B. Titchener, attempted to analyze sensations, images and feelings into their most basic elements. This school was called
A second early school of psychology asked how and why an organism's behavior helps it to adapt to its environment. It was called
Titchener is to James as
Structuralism is to functionalism.
Proponents of the _____ perspective believ that to understand the mind one must study the nervous system, because all actions, feelings and thoughts are associated with bodily events.
You have recently started psychotherapy with a psychologist who believes in the learning perspective. Which of the following statements would she make?
"To best address your problem, we must identify the behaviors that are causing problems, the environmental conditions including the rewards and punishments that maintain the behaviors and then we must modify these behaviors."
"To understand a person's actions, we must concentrate on the environmental conditions--the rewards and punishers--that maintain or discourage specific behaviors rather than studying the mind or mental states." This reflects the position of the
Which perspective or movement has helped people eliminate unwanted habits?
____ theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions.
Social-cognitive learning.
What goes on in people's heads, including how people reason, remember, understand language, solve problems are some of the topics emphasized by the
Cognitive perspective.
"To understand the causes of the high rates of anorexia nervosa among oldr adolescent women, we must consider the influence of society's norms for female beauty and thinness." This statement reflects which of the following perspectives?
"The answer to violence and cruelty doesn't reside in instincts, brain circuits or personal dispositions, but in situational, economic and cultural factors." This statement is consistent with the thinking of ___ psychologists.
"Psychological distress is a result of inner forces, specifically unresolved unconscious conflicts from early childhood." This statement reflects the position of the ___ perspective.
Developed in reaction to Freudian pessimism and behavioristic "mindlessness," ___ was based on the notion that human beings had free will.
Humanistic psychology.
Which of the following might be one of the goals of feminist psychology?
Encourage research on menstruation and motherhood.

Identify biases in psychological research and psychotherapy.

Make sure that both male and female subjects are used in research design.
Which of the following best describes the difference between applied and basic research?
Basic psychological research seeks knowledge for its own sake, whereas applied psychological research is concerned with the practical uses of knowledge.
Psychologists who conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition are called ___ psychologists.
A developmental psychologist would
Conduct a study on infant attachment behavior.
A psychometric psychologist
Designes and evaluates tests of mental abilities, apitudes, interests and personality.
Psychologists who help people deal with problems of everyday life, such as test anxiety, family or marital problems, or low job motivation, are called ___ psychologists.
Which of the following is a research area in psychology rather than a practice specialty?
Educational Psychology.
Which type of psychologist would be most likely to work with highly disturbed people?
A psychotherapist
Is not required to have any training in most states.
Dr. iriko believes that Jon's depression is biochemical and writes him a prescription for antidepressant drugs. She is most likely a
Though there are many areas of disagreement among psychologists, which of the following describes one of the guidelines on which psychological scientists and scientist-clinicians agree?
Most believe in the importance of empirical evidence.

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