Glossary of Psychology Ch. 3
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- Nervous System
whats it made of (large scale, not cells)
how does it communicate
it allows all ____ and ____ ______ to take place
- the structures and organs that facilitate electrical and chemical communication in the body and allow all behavior and mental processes to take place
- Central Nervous System
- The brain and spinal cord
- Peripheral Nervous System
- All the nerves in the body outside of the brain and spinal cord
- the type of cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system and functions through specialized structures, including dendrites, axons, and axon terminals
whats it do?
is it receptive/analytic/expressive?
- receive neural signals
whats it do?
- transmits neural signals
- axon terminal:
Whats it do??
- relays signals to adjacent neurons
think of SSRI diagram
- axon hillock:
whats it do
- part of a neuron that connects the cell body to the axon. It is attributed as the place where EPSPs from numerous synaptic inputs on the dendrites or cell body accumulate. If the accumulated potential reaches the threashold, an action potential propagates through the rest of the axon (or "backwards" towards the dendrites as seen in backpropagation).
- bundles of neurons in Per.NS
- bundles of neurons in CNS
- 3 types of neurons
- efferent neurons (motor neurons)
- latin ex (out of)
carry messages from CNS to other structures in the body
- afferent neurons (sensory neurons)
- carry messages to CNS
- neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons together
- glial cells
- cells in the NS that nourish the neurons and provide support functions
surround almost all neurons
- myelin sheath
- a thin, white, fatty layer that covers some large motor neurons and insulates them from other neurons.
Glial cells help create it
myelin lets neurons communicate faster
- 3 specialized structures of neurons
- thin, bushy, widely branching fibers that extend outward from a neuron’s cell body and that <receive signals> from neighboring neurons and carry them back to the cell body.
- a thin, elongated structure that <transmits signals> from a neuron’s cell body to the axon terminals, which pass the signals on to adjacent neurons
- the microscopically small space between the axon terminals of neuron and the dendrites, cell body, or axons of other neurons
- In resting state, neurons are positively/negatively charged on the interior (relative to exterior)
- Negatively charged
resting potential ~-70mV
Difference in charge across membrane creates a state of "polarization"
b/c of polarization, neuron is charged, ready, and waiting to activate
- a level of stimulatioon required for activation of a neuron
when threshold reached, changes occur rapidly.
- action potential
- an electrical current that travels along the axon of a neuron and is initiated by a rapid reversal of the polarization of the cell membrane.
releases NTs from axon terminal
- 4 steps in generation of Action Potential
- 1) neuron at rest, polarized
2) neuron stimulated to threshold
oppositely charged particles enter, and the action potential develops. neuron is depolarized or hyperpolarized.
3) after brief refractory period, neuron moves back to its polarized state
4) neuron returns to polarized state
- Synaptic Vesicles
- small structures that are found in every axon terminal and store neurotransmitters
- Graded Potentials
- Changes threshold of Receiving Neuron
EPSP or IPSP
Excitatory (Depolarize Cell) causes them to fire more easily
or Inhibitory (Hyperpolarize Cell) pushes neuron away from threshold for firing
Caused by NTs binding to receptor sites on receiving neurons, which causes a change in potential (action)
- an excitatory NT
crucial to excitation of skeletal muscles
- Inhibitory NTs
- GABA, DA, SE, NE (if in brain), ACh in certain organs
- Excitatory NTs
- ACh in brain, autonomic NS, and certain organs, NE in certain organs
- study of how drugs affect behavior
- chemical that mimics or facilitates the actions of a neurotransmitter.
nicotine ACh agonist
- chemical that opposes the actions of a neurotransmitter
APs- Dopamine antagonists
- 2 parts of PNS
- Somatic Nervous System
what does it do (2 things)
- carries information from sense organs to the brain and
from the brain and spinal cord to skeletal muscles, and thereby
allows bodily movement;
it controls voluntary sensory and motor functions.
- Autonomic Nervous System
- controls physiological actions and reactions that proceed automatically, such as HR, digestion, BP regulation, and the functioning of internal organs.
Has 2 Divisions
- 2 Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
- Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous Sytem
- Peripheral Nervous System division
- 1) Peripheral Nervous Sytem
a) Somatic Nervous System
b) Autonomic Nervous System
aa) Sympathetic NS
bb) Parasympathetic NS
- Sympathetic NS
- responds to emergency situations by activation certain physiological changes to prepare the body to respond.
Fight or Flight
- Parasympathetic NS
- controls the normal operations of the body, including digestion, BP, and respirations.
- 3 major divisions of Brain
- 1) hindbrain
- 4 parts of hindbrain
- 1) Cerebellum
3) reticular formation (aka RAS)
- the structures of the hindbrain...
- receive signals from the spinal cord and other parts of brain
- the part of the hindbrain that controls heartbeat and breathing.
- within the medulla is the ____
- reticular formation
- Involved in the regulation of arousal
- - a structure in the hindbrain that provides a link to the rest of the brain and affects sleep and dreaming
- receives neural signals from other parts of the brain and from the spinal cord, interprets the signals, and either relays the information to the forebrain or causes the body to act at once.
controls temp reg and reflexes/mvment
- - a large structure of the forebrain that acts primarily as a routing station for sending sensory information to other parts of the brain but probably also performs some interpretive functions
Let me connect you to the THALAMUS STATION
- that affects many complex behaviors, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity
The hypothalamus is motherfucking complex!
- Limbic System
whats it do
includes parts of the
- influences emotions, memory, social behavior, and brain disorders such as epilepsy.
Includes parts of cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the amygdala and hippocampus
note: location of pleasure centers
- involved in learning and memory, navigating in the environment, and some emotional functions.
- are involved in emotional behavior.
stimulation of amygdala in animals elicits attack response (Bull-Delgado)
- basal ganglia
- series of nuclei that are located deep in the forebrain to the left and right of the thalamus and that link the thalamus and the cortex.
- what is the largest structure of the brain?
what does it consist of?
two cerebral hemispheres and covering called the cortex
connected by the corpus callosum
- cerebral cortex
- the convoluted exterior covering off the brain’s hemispheres, which is about 2-3mm thick and is divided into several lobes.
- 4 lobes of cerebral cortex
(Front to back, in circle)
- cortex controls WHAT
- frontal lobe
3 things about function
Located in the front of the central fissure; contains motor cortex and Broca's area
- parietal lobe
function 1 thing
sense of touch and body position
behind frontal lobe
- temporal lobe
function 3 things
some visual information processing
below parietal lobe (bottom)
- visual sensing
back of brain
small electrodes placed on the scalp record activity of thousands of neurons beneath the skull
shows brain wave patterns
- imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to produce scans of great clarity and high resolution
- registers changes in the metabolism of the neurons.
- PET (positron emission topography)
- imaging technique that tracks radioactive substances injected into the bloodstream, allowing researchers to view how brain activity varies in response to different sensations, perceptions, emotions, and cognitive tasks.
- contralateral control
- R side of brain controls L side of body
- Ipsilateral contral
- R side of brain controls R side of body
much less dominant
- behaviors are done using a wide range of different areas in the brain
All of brain used for tasks
- Characterteristics of LEFT brain
looks at parts
numbers and objects
- RIGHT brain
looks at wholes
faces and places
- chemicals that are produced by the endocrine glands and that regulate the activities of specific organs or cells
- monzygotic twins
- identical twins
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