Glossary of Psychology 320 Motivation Exam Two
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- Instrumental Escape Learning
- Refers to any situation in which responses are reinforced by reducing the level of aversive stimulation. Almost any intense stimulus is potentially aversive, and any response that reduces the aversive stimulation is escape.
- Drive Theory (Dollard and Miller)
- Frustration-aggression hypothesis, which postulates that frustration arouses an aggressive drive which triggers aggressive behavior. Illustrated the theory with a child who hears an ice cream truck, is denied ice cream, and becomes aggressive. The bell instigates the goal response of getting ice cream, but interference with this response produces frustration. Frustration instigates aggressive behavior that is intended to harm someone. Aggressive behavior may be inhibited by fear of punishment
- Rozin (1998)What role does memory play in hunger motivation?
- Compared eating behaviors of amnesia and non-amnesia people. Each were given three full meals in a four hour period; wanted to see if those with amnesia remembered eating---Did not remember--all always ate entire meal; while those with regular memory did not eat after second meal. **indicated that memory plays role in hunger***
- Conditioned Hunger
- Classical conditioning--associate certain foods with certain surrondings; think about eating when associate foods with a given environmental stimulis i.e. a hotdog at a baseball game. Weightloss methods try to regulate this behavior and restraunts try to appeal to it
- Taste Aversions
- Survival component that compells an organism to avoid a certain food. Associate illness with certain foods, thus gives motivation to avoid. i.e. don't eat foods that have made you sick.
- Internal v. External Cues for Hunger (Schacter 1970's)
- Explains eating behavior in theory that some are driven through physiological needs to eat; detect changes in the body which facilitate eating behavior (internal). Some motivated to eat based upon external cues in the enviornment, i.e. they think of noon being lunchtime, get hungry (externally motivated)
***Applies theory to obesity psychological processes--normal people are internally motivated by hunger, while overweight are externally triggered by surrondings to hunger.
- Rodin (1980)'s examined Schacter's theory on obesity
- Examined Schacter's theory through *Cephalic Reflex*, surveyed students on eating behaviors (to determine whether internal or externally motivated) forced them to fast for 12 hours, took blood immediatly upon reentering; then a while later. However, the second test; they could see, smell and hear food being prepared. Thought that those who were overweight would show higher cephalic reflexes in the blood in response to food stimulis.---some results showed a correlation, but they did not compare physical characteristics (BMI, body fat, etc) but only whether determined internal or external by survey.
- 25% over normal body weight, based on height and bone structure. Physiological reasons for are your *setpoint*. Psychological causes are; social learning theory (learning eating habits from parent or other), classical conditioning--associate a given emotional state with food, operant conditioning--rewarding oneself with food
- Obesity--Mokadad (2000)
- Physician for CDC, analyzed the factors of obesity and diabities. 60% of Americans obese, with highest % of increase in children. Association between adult obesity and late developed type two diabetes, determined that obesity is something that can be controlled, and that type two diabetes is preventable; can be reversed by diet and exercise.
- The natural, comfortable, physiological state (homeostasis) for the body regarding a weight that your body operates best (genetic). Can be changed gradually, best chance for success is to set focus upon being fit, not losing weight, longer lasting and easier maintained (Cooper).
- Cephalic Reflex
- Physiological mechanism that prepares the body to digest foods (increases production of insulin, saliva, gastric stuff). The greater the cephalic reflex; the more food there is a drive to consume.
- Glucostatic Theory
- According to this theory, hunger - and the initiation of eating - is the result of a decline in blood glucose. In other words a decline in blood glucose creates a need for food which triggers the drive for food which motivates eating behaviours.
- Lipostatic Theory
- When, and how much we eat is dictated by our bodies drive to maintain its setpoint.
- Eating Disorders-Ethnic Influence
- Women from minority groups are often underdiagnosed with eating disorders, and typically not treated. And many assumed that hispanic women are not as much at risk, but are actually equally or more so then whites. Many considered, until recently that only upper and middle class white women were affected by body-image and weight related concerns. Hispanic and Black women were less likely to be refered for further treatment when showing obvious signs of eating disorders.
- Unpleasent emotional experience, that is strongly motivating, sometimes pushing people to extreme thoughs and behaviors to control it, and that long periods of it can be bad for health, producing so-called stress disorders. Distinguished apart from fear based upon the perception of control rather than recognition of the cause. It is qualitatively different experience from fear and arises when a person cannot cope with threat. Fear without a recognized cause, or as an out of proportion to the actual threat to the individual.
- Drive Theory (Woodworth)
- First to use the term "drive" as we now do in 1918. The concept behind Woodworth's drive is closely related to the concept of homeostasis.It was assumed that drive would be triggered when internal conditions changed enough to be detected and to initiate the motivational changes that amounted to drive. Thus it was assumed that some tissue need within the body would instigate drive, which would, in turn, instigate behaviours aimed at reducing the drive. According to this sort of analysis, energy depletion would lead to a hunger drive, which would in turn lead to food-seeking behaviours. Drive, then, would serve to energize appropriate behaviours, either innate or learned, which would effect a lowering of the need state of the individual.
- Anxiety Reducing method developed by Ellis (1950's) which provides that people identify their own self-defeating thoughts, actions, and behaviors, and replace them with more effective, life-enhancing ones.
- Preattentive conditioning
- the person being conditioned makes emotional responses without being consciously attentive to the stimuli involved.
- Used to reduce fear. When a phobic stimulus, which arouses a fearful response, is presented in conjunction with a stimulus that arouses a response that is incompatible with the fear response. For example, placing the feared item in relation to an item that is illicits a pleasurable response
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