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Glossary of Psychology - Test 1 Dr. Sommers

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psychology
science of behavior and mind
behavior
observable actions
mind
individual's sensations and subjective experience
founding of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt - Germany - 1879 (First university-based psychology laboratory)
roots of psychology
philosophers, physicists, physiologists, and naturalists
dualism
two distinctly but intimately conjoined entities - a material body and immaterial soul -> developed by Descartes (soul acts on a body at particular physical location [pineal body in brain])
materialism
Hobbes - soul is meaningless, nothing exists except matter and energy
structuralism
Wundt - break down into constituent parts (ie break down behavior into simplest components and rebuild)
funtionalism
William James - interested in function of behavior (influenced by Darwin)
behaviorists
John Watson and BF Skinner - study observable events, wanted to predict and control behavior
Law of Affect
behavioralism - behaviors followed by positive consequences tend to be repeated, negative tend not to
psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud - essential to study unobservable behavior and thought and mind -> importance of the unconcious
empiricists
everything about you is based on experience
nativists
humans are born with some basic instincts
scientific method
observe a problem -> come up with a hypothesis -> test it -> record and interpret data -> reject/retain hyp. -> publish results
naturalistic observation
go out and see what happens
case studies
can get a look at rare cases
interviews/surveys
efficient method of gathering large amount of data (don't want biased sample)
correlational research
soley measure (and don't manipulate)
experimental research
make cause-effect relationship by manipulating 1 variable and controlling the rest

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