Glossary of Psychology - Development Through The Lifespan
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- Define developmental psych
- scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion and personality.
- Concept of Original Sin
- All humans are born with a selfish nature and do things for selfish reasons. Idea by: Christian Doctrine
- Concept of Innate "goodness"
- Humans are innately good and seek experiences that help us grow. Everything we need, we have at birth. Idea by: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- Concept of Blank Slate
- Idea By: John Locke. Called mind of newborn child a blank slate. Suggested that adults can mold children into whatever they want them to be.
- Darwin and Evolution
- Father of modern evolution, suggested that people develop in stages.
- Stanley Hall and Norms
- Early scientific studyer of child development suggested norms.
Norms: Averages ages at which developmental milestones are reached.
- Nature Vs. Nuture
- Debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experiential factors to development.
- Over time and genetically things evolve. Arnold Gesell came up with term.
- Define Cohorts
- Group of individuals who share the same historical experiences at the same times in their lives
- The Four Steps of the Scientific Method
- 1. Come up with a question
2. Come up with a theory or hypothesis to test
3. Test the hypothesis. Design a study to test it.
4. Interpret and publish results.
- Why do we study human develpoment?
- 1. To have realistic expectations of humans, to know what's "normal"/typical.
2. Broaden and increase a larfer scope of the range of human behavior w/in context = appropriate.
3. To understand myself and what's going on in our world and body/mind.
4. So we can advocate for other people
- Longitudinal Study
- Studying group of the same people for a long period of time. Hard because it's hard to keep track of people. Hard to administer and expensive.
- Cross-Sectional Study
- Taking a slice of population. Stopping the action in the moment. It's quicker and less expensive. Have to be careful about assumptions being made. Action is paused and evaluated.
- Sequential Study
- It's a combo of longitudinal and cross-sectional. Compare different groups
- Naturalistic Observation
- Observing someone in their natural enviornment. Assume things from your own bias (this is bad).
- Survey Method
- A test, questionare. People answer questions on a variety of things. It's bias because you make up the questions and sometimes people lie when they are questions
- Case Study Method
- A study done on a particular case. Generalized oon astudy. It's a limited kind of information
- Definition of Correlation
- a relationship between two variables that can be expressed as a number ranging from -1.00 to + 1.00
- Psycholanalytical Approach - How it works
- Inter-relationships in humans between basic internal drives and their emotions.
- Freud and Psychoanalytical Approach
- Said that behavior is governed by both concious and unconcious process. Came up with terms: libido, id, ego, superego, defense mechanisms and the psychosexual stages.
- Freud's Term: Libido
- Unconcious process. Instinctual drive for physical pleasure, that's present at birth and formines the motivating force behind virtually all human behavior.
- Freud and his theory that personality has 3 parts.
- 1. Id
- Define Id
- Part of ther personality that comprises a person's basic sexual and aggressive impuleses; contains the libido and motivates a person to seek pleasure and avoid pain "Like a bratty child"
- Define Ego
- The thinking elemtent of personality "Like an adult who understand things take time to happen"
- Define Superego
- Part of personality that is the moral judge "Parent Part"
- Freud's Term Defense Mechanisms
- Strategies for reducing anxiety, such as repression, denial or projectiopn
- Common Defense Mechanisms
- Denial: pretend it doesnt exist
Repression: Push memories into unconcious
Projection: Seeing one's own behavior or beliefs in others
Regression: Behaving in a way that's inappropriate for one's age
Displacement: Directing emotion to an object rather than the one who prvoked it
Rationalization: Creating an explanation to justify an action or to deal with a disappointment.
- Freud's Pyschosexual Stages
- A child moves in a fixed sequence determined by maturation. In each stage the libido is focused on a different part of the body.
- Psychosexual Stage: Oral
- Age Birth to 1 year. Focuses on mouth, lips and tongue. Major developmental task: weaning.
- Psychosexual Stage: Anal
- Age 1 to 3 years. Focuses on anus. Major developmental task: toilet training.
- Psychsexual Stage: Phallic
- Age 3 to 6 years. Focuses on genitals. Major developmental task: resolving Oedipus/Electra complex. (children feel a sexual attraction to opposite-sex parent)
- Psychosexual Stage: Latency
- Ages 6 to 12 years. Focuses on nothing. Major developmental task: none. Developing defense mechanisms, identifying with same-sex peers.
- Psychosexual Stage: Genital
- Age 12+. Focuses on genitals. Major developmental tasks: achieving mature sexual intimacy.
- Erik Erikson and the Psychosocial Stages.
- Erikson's eight stages or crises, of personality development in which inner instincts interact with outer cultural and social demands to shape personality. Each stage completed has virtue attachement (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care and wisdom)
- The Psychosocial Stages
- 1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair
- Psychosocial Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust
- Birth - 1 year. Positive Characterisitics and Typical Activities: Hope; trust in primary caregiver and in one's own ability to make things happen. (secure attachement to caregiver is key)
- Psychosocial Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
- 1 - 3 years. Positive characteristics and Typical Activities: Will; new physical skills lead to demand for more choices, most often seen as saying "no" to caregivers; child learns self-care skills such as toileting.
- Psychosocial Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt
- 3 - 6 years. Positive characteristics and Typical activities: Purpose; ability to organize activities around some goal; more assertiveness and aggressiveness (Oedipus conflict with parent of same sex may lead to guilt)
- Psychosocial Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority
- 6 - 12 years. Poitive characteristics and typical activities: Competence; cultural skills and normas, including school skills and took use (failure to master these leads to sense of inferiority)
- Psychosocial Stage: Identity vs. Role Confusion
- 12 - 18 years. Positive characteristics and typical activities: Fidelity; adaptation of sense of self to pubertal changes, consideration of future choises, achievement of a more mature sexual identity, and search for new values
- Psychosocial Stage: Intimact vs. Isolation
- 18 - 30 years. Positive characteristics and typical activities: Love; person develops intimate relationships beyond adolescent love, many become parents
- Psychosocial Stage: Generativity vs. Stagnation
- 30 - late adulthood. Care; people rear children, focus on occupational achievement or creativity, and train the next generation; turn outward from the self towards others
- Psychosocial Stage: Integrity vs. Despair
- Late adulthood: Positive characteristics and typical activities: Wisdom; person conducts life review, integrates earlier stages and comes to terms with basic identity; develops self acceptance.
- Humanistic Theory: A. Maslow and Carl Rogers
- Psychoanalytical school grows out of psychodynamic thought. Less pssimistic about human behavior. There are drives - sex, aggression and hunger. Maslow was more optimitic, humans have potential. Carol Rogers = father of humanistic psych. Believed in human potential and humans are driven by desire to grow.
- Learning Theory Approach
- Classical Conditioning
- Learning Theory: Classical Conditioning
- Pavlov = father of classical conditioning. The more that a behavior is reinforced, the more likely it is to stick. Classical conditioning: pairing things together reinforces a behavior. He used dogs and salivation.
- Learning Theory: Operant Conditioning
- B.F. Skiiner coined the term. Reinforcement must follow a behavior. Positive and negative punishement, goal is to move forward and increase positive behaviors.
- Operant Conditioning: Positive reinforcement
- A consequence (usually something pleasant) that follows a behavior, increasing the chance that the beahvior will occur again.
- Operant Conditioning: Negative reinforcement
- Occurs when an individual learns to perform a specific behavior in order to cause something unpleasant to stop.
- Define Reinforcement
- anyhting that follows a behavior and causes it to be repeated
- Observational/Viscarious Learning and Albert Bandura
- Learning that results from seeing a modeal reinforced or punished for a behavior
- Define shaping:
- Reinforcement of intermediate steps until an individual learns a complex behavior. Esp. important during adolescence.
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