## Glossary of Psychology Ch. 2 Test of Craziness

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- Debriefing
- A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study that psychologists provide to people after they have participated in the study

- Informed Consent
- A written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail

- Random Sampling
- A technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample

- Hypothesis
- A specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory

- Theory
- A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs, usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between two or more properties. Theories lead to hypotheses

- External validity
- A characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and independent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way

- Internal Validity
- The characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and independent variable.

- Randomization
- A procedure to ensure that a participant’s inclusion in the experimental or control group is not determined by a third variable

- Self-selection
- The case in which a participant’s inclusion in the experimental or control group is determined by the participant

- Dependent Variable
- the variable that is measured in a study

- Control group
- One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment that is not exposed to the stimulus being studied

- Experimental group
- One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment; the experimental group is exposed to the stimulus being studied and the control group is not

- Independent variable
- The variable that is manipulated in an experiment

- Manipulation
- A characteristic of experimentation in which the researcher artificially creates a pattern of variation in an independent variable in order to determine its causal powers. Manipulation usually results in the creation of an experimental group and a control group

- Experiment
- A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables

- Third-variable problem
- The fact that the causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation

- Matched pairs
- An observational technique that involves matching each participant in the experimental group with a specific participant in the control group in order to eliminate that a third variable and not the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable

- Matched samples
- An observational technique that involves matching the average of the participants in the experimental and control groups in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable and not the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable

- Third-variable correlation
- The fact that two variables may be correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable

- Natural Correlation
- A correlation observed between naturally occurring variables

- Correlation Coefficient
- A statistical measure of the direction and strength of a correlation which is signified by the letter “R”

- Law of large numbers
- A statistical law stating that as sample size increases, the attributes of a sample will more closely reflect the attributes of a population from which it was drawn

- Sample
- The partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study

- Population
- The complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured

- Case Method
- A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual

- Power
- The tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things

- Reliability
- The tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing

- Correlation
- The “co-relationship” or pattern of covariation between two variables, each of which has been measured several times

- Variable
- A property whose value can vary or change

- Double-Blind
- An observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant

- Naturalistic Observation
- A method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments

- Demand Characteristics
- Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave

- Range
- The numerical difference between the smallest and the largest measurements in a frequency distribution

- Median
- the “middle” measurement in a frequency distribution. Half the measurements in a frequency distribution are greater than or equal to the median and half are less than or equal to the median

- Mean
- The average of the measurements in a frequency distribution

- Mode
- The “most frequent” measurement in a frequency distribution

- Normal distribution (bell curve)
- a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the mean and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical

- Frequency distribution
- a graphical representation of the measurements of a sample that are arranged by the number of times each measurement was observed

- Predictive validity
- The tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions

- Construct validity
- The tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation

- Validity
- The characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it

- Electromyograph (EMG)
- A device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person’s skin

- Measure
- A device that can detect the measurable events to which an operational definition refers

- Operational Definition
- A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured

- Method
- A set of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce

- Empiricism
- Originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events

- Henry wanted to estimate the average height of men in the United States. He measured a sample of his friends on the basketball team, the men that live in his apartment complex, and male members of his family. What’s a central problem with Henry’s appr
- He didn’t measure a representative sample

- Ideally, a measurement should have validity, reliability, and ________ in order to be useful to scientists
- Power

- What identifys patterns of variation in a series of measurements?
- Correlation

- The mathematical way of summarizing the pattern of correlation between two variables is to compute:
- A correlation coefficient

- When the odds are acceptably low that random assignment hasn’t failed in an experiment, the results of the experiment are said to be:
- Statistically significant

- When an operational definition of a property is related to other operational definitions of that same property, it is said to be high in:
- Predictive validity

- Measures of central tendency and measures of validity are both examples of:
- Descriptive statistics

- Which of the following values for a correlation coefficient indicates the strongest degree of relationship: -.69, -.35, +.03, or +.59?
- -.69 You are looking at the # not the sign.

- If people respond unnaturally because they are aware of being observed or of participating in research, the method of observation employed is said to be high in:
- Reactivity

- Which of the following is not one of the major ethical principles that psychologists must follow when conducting research: informed consent, debriefing, risk-benefit analysis, or random sampling?
- Random sampling

- All variables that are _________ related are _________, but not all variables that are _________ are _________ related.
- All variables that are causally related are correlated, but not all variables that are correlated are causally related.

- Empiricism is a useful approach, but it provides no guarantee that observations of the world will be accurate. To help observers avoid mistakes and illusions in observation, all sciences need to develop:
- Codes of conduct that observers must follow

- Dr. Klinegen made it clear to her psychology students that if they didn’t participate in her research, they would receive a failing grade. What ethical principle has Dr. Klinegen violated?
- Freedom from coercions

- Correlation coefficients reveal both the _________ and the _________ of a correlation between two variables.
- Direction; strength

- What are the odds that psychologists typically use to determine if random assignment has failed in an experiment?
- 5% chance of failure

- The two main features of an experiment are ____________ and ___________.
- Randomization; manipulation

- When the results of an experiment can be confidently attributed to the effects of the independent variable, the experiment is said to be high in:
- Internal validity

- Descriptive statistics include measures such as central tendency or variability. What is another group of statistics that is used to test whether conclusions can be drawn from an experiment?
- Inferential statistics

- The belief that accurate knowledge of the world requires observations of it is called:
- Empiricism

- The mode, median, and mean are all:
- Measures of central tendency

- When an operational definition of a property and the property itself share meaning, the operational definition is likely to be high in:
- Construct validity

- Why do neither matched pairs or matched samples effectively eliminate the possibility of a third-variable correlation?
- Both techniques allow us to rule out a particular third variable as a casual agent, but not the possibility of other third variables.