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Glossary of Psychology Ch. 2 Test of Craziness

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Debriefing
A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study that psychologists provide to people after they have participated in the study
Informed Consent
A written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail
Random Sampling
A technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
Hypothesis
A specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory
Theory
A hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs, usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between two or more properties. Theories lead to hypotheses
External validity
A characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and independent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
Internal Validity
The characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and independent variable.
Randomization
A procedure to ensure that a participant’s inclusion in the experimental or control group is not determined by a third variable
Self-selection
The case in which a participant’s inclusion in the experimental or control group is determined by the participant
Dependent Variable
the variable that is measured in a study
Control group
One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment that is not exposed to the stimulus being studied
Experimental group
One of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment; the experimental group is exposed to the stimulus being studied and the control group is not
Independent variable
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment
Manipulation
A characteristic of experimentation in which the researcher artificially creates a pattern of variation in an independent variable in order to determine its causal powers. Manipulation usually results in the creation of an experimental group and a control group
Experiment
A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
Third-variable problem
The fact that the causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of third-variable correlation
Matched pairs
An observational technique that involves matching each participant in the experimental group with a specific participant in the control group in order to eliminate that a third variable and not the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable
Matched samples
An observational technique that involves matching the average of the participants in the experimental and control groups in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable and not the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variable
Third-variable correlation
The fact that two variables may be correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable
Natural Correlation
A correlation observed between naturally occurring variables
Correlation Coefficient
A statistical measure of the direction and strength of a correlation which is signified by the letter “R”
Law of large numbers
A statistical law stating that as sample size increases, the attributes of a sample will more closely reflect the attributes of a population from which it was drawn
Sample
The partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study
Population
The complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
Case Method
A method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual
Power
The tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things
Reliability
The tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing
Correlation
The “co-relationship” or pattern of covariation between two variables, each of which has been measured several times
Variable
A property whose value can vary or change
Double-Blind
An observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant
Naturalistic Observation
A method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments
Demand Characteristics
Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave
Range
The numerical difference between the smallest and the largest measurements in a frequency distribution
Median
the “middle” measurement in a frequency distribution. Half the measurements in a frequency distribution are greater than or equal to the median and half are less than or equal to the median
Mean
The average of the measurements in a frequency distribution
Mode
The “most frequent” measurement in a frequency distribution
Normal distribution (bell curve)
a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the mean and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical
Frequency distribution
a graphical representation of the measurements of a sample that are arranged by the number of times each measurement was observed
Predictive validity
The tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions
Construct validity
The tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation
Validity
The characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it
Electromyograph (EMG)
A device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person’s skin
Measure
A device that can detect the measurable events to which an operational definition refers
Operational Definition
A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured
Method
A set of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce
Empiricism
Originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation, and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events
Henry wanted to estimate the average height of men in the United States. He measured a sample of his friends on the basketball team, the men that live in his apartment complex, and male members of his family. What’s a central problem with Henry’s appr
He didn’t measure a representative sample
Ideally, a measurement should have validity, reliability, and ________ in order to be useful to scientists
Power
What identifys patterns of variation in a series of measurements?
Correlation
The mathematical way of summarizing the pattern of correlation between two variables is to compute:
A correlation coefficient
When the odds are acceptably low that random assignment hasn’t failed in an experiment, the results of the experiment are said to be:
Statistically significant
When an operational definition of a property is related to other operational definitions of that same property, it is said to be high in:
Predictive validity
Measures of central tendency and measures of validity are both examples of:
Descriptive statistics
Which of the following values for a correlation coefficient indicates the strongest degree of relationship: -.69, -.35, +.03, or +.59?
-.69 You are looking at the # not the sign.
If people respond unnaturally because they are aware of being observed or of participating in research, the method of observation employed is said to be high in:
Reactivity
Which of the following is not one of the major ethical principles that psychologists must follow when conducting research: informed consent, debriefing, risk-benefit analysis, or random sampling?
Random sampling
All variables that are _________ related are _________, but not all variables that are _________ are _________ related.
All variables that are causally related are correlated, but not all variables that are correlated are causally related.
Empiricism is a useful approach, but it provides no guarantee that observations of the world will be accurate. To help observers avoid mistakes and illusions in observation, all sciences need to develop:
Codes of conduct that observers must follow
Dr. Klinegen made it clear to her psychology students that if they didn’t participate in her research, they would receive a failing grade. What ethical principle has Dr. Klinegen violated?
Freedom from coercions
Correlation coefficients reveal both the _________ and the _________ of a correlation between two variables.
Direction; strength
What are the odds that psychologists typically use to determine if random assignment has failed in an experiment?
5% chance of failure
The two main features of an experiment are ____________ and ___________.
Randomization; manipulation
When the results of an experiment can be confidently attributed to the effects of the independent variable, the experiment is said to be high in:
Internal validity
Descriptive statistics include measures such as central tendency or variability. What is another group of statistics that is used to test whether conclusions can be drawn from an experiment?
Inferential statistics
The belief that accurate knowledge of the world requires observations of it is called:
Empiricism
The mode, median, and mean are all:
Measures of central tendency
When an operational definition of a property and the property itself share meaning, the operational definition is likely to be high in:
Construct validity
Why do neither matched pairs or matched samples effectively eliminate the possibility of a third-variable correlation?
Both techniques allow us to rule out a particular third variable as a casual agent, but not the possibility of other third variables.

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