Glossary of Psychological Theories
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- What are the 8 psychological theories?
- I.Freud's Object Relations
II.Developments: Erickson, Piaget, Gessell
III.Behaviorist:Pavlot, Skinner, Thorndike, Watson
IV. Cognitive-Behaviorst: Beck, Ellis
V.Huminist (client based): Maslow, Rogers
VI. Neuroscientific Theories: Medical Model
VII.Social Learning: Bandura
- What are the major assumptions of Freud's object-relations theory?
- That most of mental life is unconscious and past experiences, especially from early childhood.
- What are the psyco-sexual stages of development that contribute to Freud's object-relations theory?
- The 5 stages are:
- What isthe structural model of personality according to Freud?
- What is the Id? and its role?
- The Id's only role is to satisfy its needs:
-sex drive (self preservation thru procreation)
- What is the Superego? and its role?
- Superego is the conscience, the moralizer. Tells you what is right and wrong?
These 'values' are learned/internalized through experiences and relationships w/humans and non-human objects
- What is the Ego? and its role?
- -The ego compromises between the ID and Superego
- What are some of the Ego's important functions?
- - Reality Testing
- How does the Ego use Defence Mechanisms?
See P.20 for list of defence mechanisms
- -Defence mechanisms are used to compromise among the Id and the Superego.
-Defend against (control) anxiety and other uncomfortable feelings
- How does mental illness occur according to the objects theory?
- An overwhelming anxiety between the Id and Superego that the Ego can't contol...causes a breakdown.
- Why are symbols used in Freud's Object Relations Theory?
- Give clues to unconscious feelings
- What is Developmental Theory?
- These theories indicate that development happens in stages and that one builds on the next.
- What is Behavioral Theories?
- Central concept is that rewarded behaviors are learned, thus pleasurable experiences will be repeated and unpleasant experiences will cease.
- What are the steps to changing behaviors?
- 1. Identify the terminal behavior
2. Determine the baseline of the behavior (count the frequency)
3. Select the reinforcement (consequence)
4.Select the reinforcer (reward)
5. Determine the schedule of reinforcement.
-first start w/continuous
-once established, go to intermittent
- What is shaping in the behavioral theory setting?
- work toward terminal behavior by using small steps. 5 min then increase to 10 mins, for ex.
- How does chaining work in the behavioral theory setting?
- Can be forward chaining or backward chaining.
The pt does what he can and therapist completes the task. Next time the pt's does an additional step, etc. until the pt performs the whole task.
*mentally retarded people learn best w/backward chaining*
- What are the Conditioning applications in behavioral theory?
- Classical and Operant
Classical: a natural & a neutral stimulus paired to get response. Then response comes from the neutral stimuli.
Operant: you repeat what is rewarded, or if the negative reinforcer is removed.
- How does RET work?
- What are the assumptions in Cognitive-Behavioral Theory?
- That human behavior is based on what we think and believe.
- What is negative cognition?
- automatice thoughts that occure without recognizing them or challenging their logic
- What methods challenge the distored perception and thoughts that create illness?
- Cognitive rehearsal
- What causes Mental Illness according to the Cognitive-Behavioral Theory?
- Maladaptive thinking which leads to unsuccessful behaviors
- What is the Humanist theory view on mental health?
- that humans are innately good and possess the ability to cure self.
- How does the Humanist approach work?
- Basically the patient does all of the talking.. The therapist 'skillfully' listens.
- How does mental illness occur per the Humanist theory?
- The client has lost or is unaware of his/her freedom, choices in being able to direct own feelings.
- What behaviors are needed to help the client?
unconditional positive regard
- What techniques for treatment are used in the Humanist theory?
- open invitation to talk
reflection of feeling
- How does the neuroscientific theory approach mental health?
- central concept is that the mind and emotions are explained bby biochemical and electrical activity in the brain
- What is treatment directed at in the neuroscientific theory approach?
- The CNS
- What treatments can be used in the neuroscientific theory approach?
ECT: electro convulsive shock
- What is the focus in Psychiatric rehab?
- The focus and goal is to person w/mental illness FUNCTION optimally in society
- How does Psychiatric rehab reach its goal?
- by facilitating techniques to attain functionality.
- Why are Psychiatric rehab and OT similar?
- They are both oriented to
-developing skills and resources
-use of activities
as a base for intervention.
- What is the Psychiatric rehab?
- It is an eclectic use of various theories/techniques
- What are the 2 fundamentals of Psychiatric rehab?
- 1 development of client skills
2 development of environmental supports
- What is the Social Learning theory?
- Places emphasis on observational learning. That society contributes to learning, thus behaviors
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