Glossary of Psych concepts Ch 8 - Cognition and Language
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- Susan and her friends are standing in her office looking for her keys. Suddenly, Dave calls out, HEY! and throws her the keys. The time it takes Susan to look up and get ready to catch the keys after hearing Dave call out is know as what?
- reaction time
- THe tennis player who knows that her opponent usually serves to a particular spot on the court will have a simple decision to make when the serve is completed and will react rapidly. But if she faces an opponent whose serve is less predictable her reacti
- A pot starts to boil over . The reaction time in turning down the heat will depend in part on the stove's design. If the knob is right next to the pot than your reaction time will be faster.
- stimulus-response compatibility
- Sprinters who try too hard to anticipate the starting gun may have especially quick starts but may also have especially frequent false starts that disqualify them.
- speed-accuracy tradeoff
- YOur reaction time will be shorter when braking for a traffic light that you knew might turn red than when dodging a ball thrown at you out of nowhere.
- Vicky asked Mary "how to do you get to the Union?" Mary pictured all the buildings next to the Union to help explain to Vicky how to get there.
- cognitive maps
- Terry pictured Jess in a clown suit and laughed, here thought was called an...
- mental image
- A ball is round. Therefore anything that is not round is not a ball.
- formal concepts
- the concept of a bird is "ability of fly" but an ostrich is a bird that cannot fly, although some birds have other features than other birds like feathers, wings, etc. there still a bird.
- natural concepts
- It takes less time to answer the question " Is the robin a bird?" than "Is a penguin a bird?" because a robin has more characterics or features of a bird than does a peguin who is also a bird but with less of those things.
- The moment Kala mentions a basketball game...I think of a ball and players
- WHen you go to a restaurant there's a sequence of events you can expect when you go out to eat. You'll know what to do, when to order, and when to pay.
- Carla likes to buy flowers. These are two concepts that have a relationship with eachother. (Carla and flowers)
- All cats are mammals, and all people are mammals. Therefore, all cats are people.
- Tim thought that the probablity of being mugged in Los Angeles is 90 percent and then heard evidence that the figure was closer to 1 percent , he might reduce his estimate, but only to 80 percent, so his judgement would still be way off.
- anchoring heuristics
- Fred encountered a man who is tidy,small in stature, wears glasssses, speaks quietly,and is somewhat shy. He was asked whether this person is more likely to be a librarian or a farmer? he choosed farmer but he is likely to be wrong because there might be
- representativeness heuristic
- a friend of yours has just moved to New York City. You cannot understand why he has moved there since the crime rate is so high. You hear from a mutual acquaintance that your friend is in the hospital. You assume that he was probably mugged because this
- availability heuristic
- Some students apply this approach to the problem of writing a major term paper. The task might seem overwhelming at first, but their first subgoal is simply to write an outline of what they think the paper should cover.
- means-end analysis also known as decomposition
- Lets say you have the solution to a problem. Go from there and plan out the strategies all the way to the beginning.
- working backwards
- Sarah had a problem and she didnt not know how to solve it right away so she sat the problem to the side for a while and worked on other things. As she begin to work on other things she came up with a solution to her problem after a while.
- A supervisor may find, that a seemingly hopeless problem between co-workers may be resolved by the same compromise that worked during a recent family squabble.
- The last time his CD player door wouldn't open Dave tapped the front of it and it popped open. This time when it wont open, Dave does does the same thing-not noticing that the power isn't even on!
- mental sets
- Nina fails to use use the things in her environment of her kitchen to use to get her moms ring out of the sink drain because she thinks the objects such as a knife are only used for cutting food.
- functional fixedness
- Doctors choose their first hypothesis on the basis of observed symptoms and then order tests or evaluate additonal symptoms to confirm or refute that hypothesis.
Involves anchoring to an initial hypothesis and being unwilling to abandon it.
- confirmation bias
- A hitman sends a threat letter to the famous singer. She sees it as a joke, and doesnt tell anybody. Few days letter the hitman as put her in hospital.
- ignoring negative evidence
- If, for instance finishing a degree quickly is most important to you, then you might choose courses based mainly on graduation requirements, without giving much consideration to professors' reputation
- THe ______ of an attribute is its subjective, personal value. Juan prefers large classes because he likes the stimulation of hearing many opposing viewspoints.....
- If you flip a coin and it comes up heads ten times in the row, the chance that it will come up heads on the eleventh try is still 50 percent.
- gambler's fallacy
- People usually feel worse about losing a certain amount than they feel good about gaining the same amount is called...
- loss aversion
- The tendency toward extreme desicions by groups.
- group polarization
- Compared with beginners ________ are better able to relate new information and new experiences and existing knowledge.
- Expert knowledge
- A field that seeks to develop computers that intimate the processes of human perception and thought.
- Arificial Intelligence
- the smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech. ex: tea has a different meaning from sea.
- the smallest unit of language that has meaning. For example: dog, run, ed, and un....have meaning because they can represent the past or the opposite of a word.
- A subject and a ver must be combined in a sentence. For example, The cat jumped over the bush.
THese words are put together and form a sentence
- The order in which words are arranged. For example : The shooting of the psychologist was terrible.
- surface structure
- The relationship of the words in a sentence. For example : The shooting of the pyschologist was terrible. Theres two meaning to this sentence. shooting as in (gun shot) or shooting as in (playing basketball)
- deep structure
- the first sounds an infant make resembles speech. Ex. Ba-Ba
- Laura says "ba" to stand for bottle, ball, and anything else that starts with a B.
- one-word stage
- Brief sentences with words left out from a child. Ex: "Mommy give" or "Mommy Book"
- Telegraphic speech
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