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Glossary of Psych chapter five

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Ethiologists
Scientists who study the behavior of animals in their natural habitat
Fixed action pattern
A species-specific behavior that is built into an animal's nervous stystem and triggered by a specific stimulus.
Learning
A relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from experience
Habitutation
The tendency of an organsim to become familiar with a stimulus as a result of repeated exposure.
Classical conditioning
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate one stimulus with another (pavlovian conditioning)
Unconditioned response (UR)
An unlearned response (salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (food)
Unconditioned stimulous (US)
A stimulus (food) that triggers an unconditioned response (salivation)
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
A neutral stimulus (bell) that comes to evoke a classically conditioned response (salivation)
Conditioned response (CR)
A learned response (salivation) to be a classically conditioned stimulus (bell)
Aquisition
The formation of a learned response to a stimulous through the presentation of an unconditioned stimulus (classical conditioning) or reinforcement (operant conditioning)
Extinction
The elimination of a learned response by removal of the unconditioned stimulus (CC or reinforcement (OC)
Spontaneous recovery
The reemergence of an extinguised conditioned response after a rest period
Stimulus generalization
The tendency to respond to a stimulus taht is similar to the conditioned stimulous
Discrimination
In classical and operant conditioning, the ability to distinguish between different stimuli
The law of effect
A law statin gthat responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated, whereas those followed by negative outcomes are not.
Skinner box
An apparatus, invented by skinner, used to study the effects of reinforcement on the behavior of laboratory animals.
Operant conditioning
The process by which organisms learn to behave in ways that produce reinforcement
Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, any stimulus that increases the likelyhood of a prior response
Punishment
In OC, any stimulous that decreases the likelyhood of a prior response
Shaping
A procedure in which reinforcements are used to gradually guide an animal or person toward a specific behavior
Partial-reinforcement Effect
The tendency for a schedule of partial reinforcement to strengthen later resistance to existence.
Discriminative stimulus
A stimulus that signals the availability of reinforcement
Latent learning
Learning that occurs but is not exhibited in performance until there is an incentive to do so
Observational Learning
Learning that takes place when one observes and models the behavior of others

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