Glossary of Psych ch. 2 and 3

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glial cells
support cells -assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes---they manufacture myelin.
highly specialized cells that communicate information in chemical and electrical form---a nerve cell.
sensory neurons
convey information to the brain from sensory organs and internal organs.
motor neurons
neurons that signal muscles to relax and contract.
communicates information from one neuron to the next.
list 7 parts of the neuron.
3-myelin sheath
4-nodes of ranvier
6-synaptic gap
7-synaptic bulbs
what is a working neuron called? resting?
depolarized, polarized.
list 6 neurotransmitters and what they do.
1-acetylcholine - memory/learning/stimulates muscles to move/understanding
2-dopamine - movement/pleasure
3-serotonin - mood/emotional state/sleep
4-norepinephrine - activates neurons in brain--flight or fright/learning/memory rehiblitation
5-GABA - messages to brain to prevent anxiety
6-endorphins - kills pain/good feelings
recieve information from other neurons and sensory receptors.
cell body
provides energy for the neuron for functions
contains cell's genetic material
myelin sheath
present on the axons of some neurons and increases neuron communication speed.
nodes of ranvier
gap in myelin sheath.
carries neuron's message to other body areas
what are the 2 parts of the nervous system?
central nervous system and periphreal nervous system.
what are the 2 parts of the central nervous system?
-spinal cord
what are the 2 parts of the periphreal nervous system?
-somactic nervous system
-autonomic nervous system
(covers everything not brain and spinal cord)
what does the somatic nervous system do?
controls vol. muscles.
what are the 2 parts of the autonomic nervous system and what does it do?
-sympathetic nervous system
-parasympathetic nervous system
(controls things that we dont have to think about to operate like heartbeat and breathing)
what does the sympathetic nervous system do?
big switch---turns things on like heartbeat.
what does the parasympathetic nervous system do?
lots of little switches---calms things down selectivly.
what are the 3 parts of the brain?
what are the 5 parts of the hindbrain?
1-pons(coordinates movements on both sides of the body)
2-cerebellum(coordinates movement, balance, posture)
3-reticular formation(helps regulate attention and alertness)
4-medulla(breathing, heartbeat, etc.)
5-substantia nigra(motor skills)
what is the midbrain?
middle region of the brain, involved in processing visual and auditory information.
what are the 2 parts of the forebrain
1-cerebral cortex (divided into 2 hemispheres, responsible for sophisticated mental functions)
2-corpus callosum (thick band of axons that connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebral cortex)
what does the left brain best in?
what is the right brain best in?
what are the 4 lobes and what do they each control?
1-temporal lobe (recieves auditory info)
2-occipital lobe (recieves visual info)
3-parietal lobe (processes somatic sensations)
4-frontal lobe (muscle movement, thinking, planning, emotional control)
5 sense?
what is sensation?
process of detecting physical stimuli (light, sound, heat...)
what is perception?
how your mind interprets and organizes information.
what are sensory receptors?
cells unique to each sense organ that respond to certain sensory stimulation
what is transduction?
energy that is converted into coded neural impluses that can be processed by the nervous system so your brain can understand it.
what is the route of sound till you hear it?
-external auditory canal
-hammer, anvil, stirrup
-oval window
-basilar membrane
what are the chemical senses?
smell and taste
what is smell transduced by?
olfactory bulbs
what does smell report to?
straight to the brain.
what is bottom-up processing?
information is driven by the actual experience the stimulus is giving you

based on taste, touch, etc.
what is top-down processing?
driven by experience, things you have learned in the past to bring on the new informaiton
what is gestalt psychology--wertheimer?
we look at things as a whole as oppose to looking at the parts of something.

we look at the whole before we see the parts.
what is perceptual constancies?
when we look at things that are skewed we still recognize them for what they are.
what are the 2 cues for depth?
1-monocular cues for depth (can be processed with either eye alone)
2-binocular cues for depth (can only be processed with both eyes together)
what are 2 subdivisons for binocular cues for depth?
1-convergence (degree to which muscle rotate your eyes to focus on an object
2-binocular disparity (slightly different image of an object is cast in the retina of each eye)
what are the 3 senses with blind spots?
what are the 7 parts of the eye?
6-optic disk
what is the iris?
the colored part of the eye---it is also a muscle that controls the size of the pupil
what is the cornea?
a clear membrane that covers the eye which gathers and directs incoming light
what is the pupil?
an opening in the middle of the eye which changes size to let in different amounts of light.
what is the lens?
structure behind the pupil which foucses/bends light as it enters the eye.
what is the fovea?
point in retina composed of cones that visual information is focused.
what is the retina?
membrane in the back of the eyeball that contains rods and cones.
what is the optic disk?
point where optic nerve leaves the eye---contains blind spot
what are rods?
sensory receptors that are responsible for periphreal vision and night vision
what are cones?
sensory receptors that detect color and are responsible for color vision and visual acuity.
what do pons do?
coordinates movement on both sides of the body
what do cerebellum do?
coordinates movement, balance, and posture
what do reticular formation do?
helps regulate attention and alertness
what do medulla do?
breathing, heartbeat, etc.
what do substantia nigra do?
motor skills.
what does the cerebral cortex do?
divided into 2 hemispheres, responsible for sophsicated mental functions
what does the corpus callosum do?
a thick band of axons that connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
what does the temporal lobe do?
recieves auditory information
what does the occipital lobe do?
recieves visual information
what does the pariental lobe do?
processes somatic sensations
what does the frontal lobe do?
muscle movement, thinking, planning, etc.

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