Glossary of Psych ch. 2 and 3
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- glial cells
- support cells -assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes---they manufacture myelin.
- highly specialized cells that communicate information in chemical and electrical form---a nerve cell.
- sensory neurons
- convey information to the brain from sensory organs and internal organs.
- motor neurons
- neurons that signal muscles to relax and contract.
- communicates information from one neuron to the next.
- list 7 parts of the neuron.
4-nodes of ranvier
- what is a working neuron called? resting?
- depolarized, polarized.
- list 6 neurotransmitters and what they do.
- 1-acetylcholine - memory/learning/stimulates muscles to move/understanding
2-dopamine - movement/pleasure
3-serotonin - mood/emotional state/sleep
4-norepinephrine - activates neurons in brain--flight or fright/learning/memory rehiblitation
5-GABA - messages to brain to prevent anxiety
6-endorphins - kills pain/good feelings
- recieve information from other neurons and sensory receptors.
- cell body
- provides energy for the neuron for functions
- contains cell's genetic material
- myelin sheath
- present on the axons of some neurons and increases neuron communication speed.
- nodes of ranvier
- gap in myelin sheath.
- carries neuron's message to other body areas
- what are the 2 parts of the nervous system?
- central nervous system and periphreal nervous system.
- what are the 2 parts of the central nervous system?
- what are the 2 parts of the periphreal nervous system?
- -somactic nervous system
-autonomic nervous system
(covers everything not brain and spinal cord)
- what does the somatic nervous system do?
- controls vol. muscles.
- what are the 2 parts of the autonomic nervous system and what does it do?
- -sympathetic nervous system
-parasympathetic nervous system
(controls things that we dont have to think about to operate like heartbeat and breathing)
- what does the sympathetic nervous system do?
- big switch---turns things on like heartbeat.
- what does the parasympathetic nervous system do?
- lots of little switches---calms things down selectivly.
- what are the 3 parts of the brain?
- what are the 5 parts of the hindbrain?
- 1-pons(coordinates movements on both sides of the body)
2-cerebellum(coordinates movement, balance, posture)
3-reticular formation(helps regulate attention and alertness)
4-medulla(breathing, heartbeat, etc.)
5-substantia nigra(motor skills)
- what is the midbrain?
- middle region of the brain, involved in processing visual and auditory information.
- what are the 2 parts of the forebrain
- 1-cerebral cortex (divided into 2 hemispheres, responsible for sophisticated mental functions)
2-corpus callosum (thick band of axons that connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebral cortex)
- what does the left brain best in?
- what is the right brain best in?
- what are the 4 lobes and what do they each control?
- 1-temporal lobe (recieves auditory info)
2-occipital lobe (recieves visual info)
3-parietal lobe (processes somatic sensations)
4-frontal lobe (muscle movement, thinking, planning, emotional control)
- 5 sense?
- what is sensation?
- process of detecting physical stimuli (light, sound, heat...)
- what is perception?
- how your mind interprets and organizes information.
- what are sensory receptors?
- cells unique to each sense organ that respond to certain sensory stimulation
- what is transduction?
- energy that is converted into coded neural impluses that can be processed by the nervous system so your brain can understand it.
- what is the route of sound till you hear it?
- -external auditory canal
-hammer, anvil, stirrup
- what are the chemical senses?
- smell and taste
- what is smell transduced by?
- olfactory bulbs
- what does smell report to?
- straight to the brain.
- what is bottom-up processing?
- information is driven by the actual experience the stimulus is giving you
based on taste, touch, etc.
- what is top-down processing?
- driven by experience, things you have learned in the past to bring on the new informaiton
- what is gestalt psychology--wertheimer?
- we look at things as a whole as oppose to looking at the parts of something.
we look at the whole before we see the parts.
- what is perceptual constancies?
- when we look at things that are skewed we still recognize them for what they are.
- what are the 2 cues for depth?
- 1-monocular cues for depth (can be processed with either eye alone)
2-binocular cues for depth (can only be processed with both eyes together)
- what are 2 subdivisons for binocular cues for depth?
- 1-convergence (degree to which muscle rotate your eyes to focus on an object
2-binocular disparity (slightly different image of an object is cast in the retina of each eye)
- what are the 3 senses with blind spots?
- what are the 7 parts of the eye?
- what is the iris?
- the colored part of the eye---it is also a muscle that controls the size of the pupil
- what is the cornea?
- a clear membrane that covers the eye which gathers and directs incoming light
- what is the pupil?
- an opening in the middle of the eye which changes size to let in different amounts of light.
- what is the lens?
- structure behind the pupil which foucses/bends light as it enters the eye.
- what is the fovea?
- point in retina composed of cones that visual information is focused.
- what is the retina?
- membrane in the back of the eyeball that contains rods and cones.
- what is the optic disk?
- point where optic nerve leaves the eye---contains blind spot
- what are rods?
- sensory receptors that are responsible for periphreal vision and night vision
- what are cones?
- sensory receptors that detect color and are responsible for color vision and visual acuity.
- what do pons do?
- coordinates movement on both sides of the body
- what do cerebellum do?
- coordinates movement, balance, and posture
- what do reticular formation do?
- helps regulate attention and alertness
- what do medulla do?
- breathing, heartbeat, etc.
- what do substantia nigra do?
- motor skills.
- what does the cerebral cortex do?
- divided into 2 hemispheres, responsible for sophsicated mental functions
- what does the corpus callosum do?
- a thick band of axons that connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
- what does the temporal lobe do?
- recieves auditory information
- what does the occipital lobe do?
- recieves visual information
- what does the pariental lobe do?
- processes somatic sensations
- what does the frontal lobe do?
- muscle movement, thinking, planning, etc.
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