Glossary of Psych Test Chapter 7 Vocab

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mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties
an especially representative example of a concept
unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea
cognitive schema
integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world
mental image
mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities
subconscious process
mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness BUT accessible to consciousness when necessary
implicit learning
learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you have learned

(adaptive behavior, cultural, societal values)
inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
deductive -> true premises = true conclusion

inductive -> true premises, but possibility of a false conclusion
rule that suggests a course of action for problem solving, but does not guarantee an optimal solution

(what to do in order to SOLVE the problem)
dialectical reasoning
process in which opposing facts are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or to resolving differences

(opposing views to reach conclusion)
availability heuristic
tendency to judge probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances

(emotional or traumatic catastrophes grossly overestimated, and plain events underestimated)
mental set
tendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems
hindsight bias
overestimating one's ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known

(I knew it all along...)
confirmation bias
tendency to look or pay attention to only info that confirms one's own belief
cognitive dissonance
state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person's beliefs are incongruent with his or her behavior
postdecision dissonance
theory of cognitive dissonance, tension that occurs when you believe you may have made a bad decision
justification of effort
tendency of individuals to increase their liking for something that they have worked hard or suffered to attain

(under cognitive dissonance)
factor analysis
statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores
g factor
general ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents
measurement of mental abilities, traits, and processes
stereotype threat
burden of doubt a person feels about his or her performance, due to negative stereotypes about his or her group's ability
triarchic theory of intelligence
theory of intelligence that emphasizes information-processing strategies, the ability to transfer skills to new situations, and the practical application of intelligence
three aspects of triarchic theory:
1. componential intelligence: info-processing strategies when thinking intelligently about problem (tested by IQ tests)

2. experiential intelligence: creativity in transferring skills to new situations

3. contextual intelligence: practical application of intelligence, take into account context you find yourself in
knowledge or awareness of one's own cognitive processes
tacit knowledge
strategies for success that are not explicitly taught but that instead must be inferred
emotional intelligence
ability to identify your own and other people's emotions accurately, express your emotions clearly, and regulate emotions in yourself and others
statistical estimate of proportion of total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals w/i a group

(IQ's of twins reared together and apart are highly correlated)
stanford-binet intelligence test
the older the test-taker is, the more the test requires in the way of verbal comprehension and fluency
reflective judgement
ability to evaluate and integrate evidence, relate that evidence to a theory or opinion, and reach a conclusion that can be defended as reasonable or plausible; also ready to reassess conclusion in the face of new information
pre-reflective stage
assume that a correct answer always exists and that it can be obtained directly through the senses
quasi-reflective stage
people recognize that some things cannot be known with absolute certainty, but unsure of how to deal w/ these situations

pay attention only to evidence that supports what they already believe
reflective stage
understands some things cannot be known with certainty, but that some judgements are more valid than others

willing to consider evidence from a variety of sources

able to defend conclusion based on all available evidence
achievement versus aptitude tests
achievement: measure skills and knowledge you ALREADY have

aptitude: measure ability to acquire skills or knowledge in the future
Wechsler Intelligence Scales (for adults and children)
provide specific scores for different kinds of ability

person's vocab, arithmetic, memory span, recognizing similarities, general knowledge and comprehension

tests a range of nonverbal skills

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