Glossary of Psych Prep Key Terms- Social

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internal: locates the cause of an event to outcome within a person

external: locates the cause of an event to outcome outside of a person

situational: locates the cause of a bx w/in a person

dispositional: locates the cause of a bx outside the person
depression- attributions
learned helplessness results from attributing negative events to internal, stable, and global causes
fundamental attribution error v. self-serving bias v. actor-observer bias
fundamental attribution: error: bias toward attributing the bx of others to internal or dispositional causes while underestimating the influence of situational variables

self-serving bias: when we explain our own bx, we attribute successes to internal factors and failures to external factors

actor-observer bias: attribute own actions to situational factors and others' bx to dispositional factors
cognitive dissonance v. self-perception theory
cognitive dissonance: people change their attitudes to reduce the aversive arousal they experience when they become aware of inconsistency in their cognitions

self-perception theory: people infer their attitudes as well as their emotions by observing their own bx
scapegoating v. blaming the victim
scapegoating: when the source of frustration is either bigger or capable of retaliating or when the cause of frustration is ambiguous, people displace aggression, or scapegoat, innocent victims

blaming the victim: results from the fundamental attribution error, attribute cause of misfortune of others to dispositional factors
persuasion: primacy effect (long gap) v. recency effect (short gap)
primacy effect: when there is a long gap b/w speech and desired action, the first speaker is remembered best

recency effect: when the gap is smaller, the last speaker is remembered best
superodinate goals
used in Sherif's Robber's Cave study to reduce prejudice, higher than individual goals that benefit both parties and can only be achieved w/ two groups working together
bystander apathy and diffusion of responsibility
when people do not help b/c part of a group of bystanders, the tendency to assume that someone else will respond and take action
aggression: frustration-aggression v. social learning theory
frustration-aggression theory: aggression is always due to frustration and frustration always leads to some form of aggression

social learning theory: learn to be aggressive by observing models behaving aggressively and by seeing others awarded for aggressive bx
conformity v. obediance
forms of social influence

conformity: changing one's bx as a result of real or imagined social or group pressure (Sherif's autokinetic effect, Asch's lines)

obediance: following a direct command, usually from an authority figure
foot-in-the-door v. door-in-the-face
foot-in-the-door: start with a small request, followed by the true larger request

door-in-the-face: start with a large request, followed by the true smaller request
the process of suspending one's private self-identity and adopting instead the identity of the group, decreased self-awareness and self-regulation
social facilitation v. inhibition
social facilitation: when individual task performance is enhanced by the mere presence of others, occurs most frequently when the task is simple or familiar

inhibition: when task performance is compromised by the presence of others, occurs when the task is novel or complex
social buffer effect
it is not so much the size of the social network that is important but the person's perception of having an adequate social network
inner city teachers' expectations of kids
similarity hypothesis v. reciprocity hypothesis v. propinquity hypothesis v. matching hypothesis
similarity hypothesis: people similar in social background and values tend to form intimate relationships

reciprocity hypothesis: people tend to like others who like them

propinquity hypothesis: proximity promotes attraction primarily b/c of mere exposure and familiarity

matching hypothesis: people of approimately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other
approach-approach v. approach-avoidance v. avoidance-avoidance
approach-approach: choice b/w two or more favorable alternatives

approach-avoidance: choice about whether to do one thing that will have both desirable and undesirable results

avoidance-avoidance: choice b/w two unpleasant alternatives that will lead to negative results no matter which choice is made
etic v. emic
etic: an asssumption that there are universal principles that underlie personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy

emic: every culture has its own norms and values
proxemics v. kinesics v. paralanguage
aspects of communication style

proxemics: use of personal strength

kinesics: body movements, including facial expression and eye contact

paralanguage: vocal cues, including loudness, pauses and rate of speech
high context v. low context
high context: situational and nonverbal cues significantly affect the meaning of what is being verbalized (African, Asian, Latino and Native Americans)

low context: the meaning of communication is what is explicitly stated (middle-class, European-American)
stages of racial or cultural identity
1. conformity: preference for dominant culture

2. dissonance: appreciation for aspects of minority culture, questioning of values and customs of dominant culture

3. resistance-immersion: strong identification w/ minority group

4. introspection: deeper analysis of attitudes and feelings

5. integrative awareness: ability to appreciate and criticize aspects of minority and dominant cultures
the process by which members of one cultural group learn about and adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group
cultural encapsulation
occurs when a therapist makes narrow assumptions about reality, minimizes cultural variation among individuals, and judges others according to the encapsulated therapist's self-reference criteria
collateral v. individualistic perspective
collateral perspective: values family and social connectedness (Latino, African, Asian American)

individualistic perspective: values individual achievement (European-American)
treatment approaches with diverse ethnic groups
Latino: active, concrete, problem-solving orientation, family therapy is useful, informality

African: establish a positive alliance, convey respect, egalitarian, consider stage of racial identity, Nancy Boyd-Franklin advocates a multisystems approach involving active involvement with client's systems and meeting outside the office

Asian: structured, active and directive

Native: family therapy, incorporate traditional healers
culture-bound syndrome v. idiom of distress
culture-bound syndrome: psychiatric disorders that are found only in a particular cultural group

idiom of distress: "illness language" of a particular cultural group, the preferred ways of expressing distress

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