Glossary of Psych Prep Key Terms- Assessment

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norm v. criterion referenced score
norm referenced: provides information on how a person performed relative to others in the group (e.g., percentile)

criterion referenced: provides information on how much of the content a person has mastered (e.g., percentage)
objective v. subjective tests
objective tests: does not rely on the rater's subjective judgment for scoring

subjective tests: involve some element of the rater's judgment
normative v. ipsative score
normative score: tells us how someone performed relative to others

ipsative score: provides information on the relative strengths and weaknesses of the person only, and does not compare the person to others
empirical criterion keying
a process for selecting items to be used in a test, involving keying the items to an external criterion that differentiates b/w people who have/don't have a particular trait (MMPI)
"g factor"
Spearman proposed that intelligence is a single factor

Cattell agreed but added that this factor includes two subtypes (fluid and crystallized)

Cattell-Horn-Carroll agreed but added that this factor is 1 of 3 stratum that also include 10 broad cognitive abilities and 70 narrow cogntive abilities
Spearman v. Thurstone v. Catell v. Gardner v. Sternberg
Spearman: g-factor only

Thurstone: 7 primary mental abilities

Catell: g-factor with subtypes fluid and crystallized

Gardner: multiple intelligences

Sternberg: process rather than product
WAIS-III factors
Verbal Comprehension: vocab, similarities, information

Perceptual Organization: picture completion, block design, matrix reasoning

Working Memory: arithmetic, digit span, letter-number

Processing Speed: digit-symbol coding, symbol search
WISC-IV factors
verbal comprehension: similarities, vocab, comprehension

perceptual reasoning: block design, picture concepts, matrix reasoning, object assembly

working memory: digit span, letter-number

processing speed: coding, symbol search, cancellation
pattern or scatter analysis on WAIS or WISC
looks at discrepancies b/w subtests, has not been found to be valid for making dx's, can result in too many false positives as measurement error alone can account for differences
when to use PIQ v. VIQ
low SES: VIQ may underestimate intelligence

culture or ESL: VIQ may underestimate intelligence

impaired motor functioning: PIQ may underestimate intelligence
L, F, and K on MMPI
L (lie scale): naive attempt to present self in favorable light

F (infrequency or fake bad scale): high scores suggest psychotic processes, tremendous distress, cry for help, malingering

K (defensiveness scale): high scores suggest a more sophisticated attempt to present self in favorable light, low scores suggests excessive openness and poor ego strength
confabulation on Rorschach
a special score that involves generalizing from one area of the blot to the entire blot (e.g., this is a claw so it must be a lobster), typically seen in persons with cognitive deficits such as MR or brain damage

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