Glossary of Psych Module 1 2
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- What is Psychology?
- *A set of questions about mental functioning
*A set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions
*A product of history
- What is Dualism?
- When the mind and body are separate but interrelated
- Who thought of Dualism?
- Socrates and Plato
- What is Monism?
- When the body and soul are not separate
- Who is Rene Descartes?
- He modified Dualism and studied reflexes
- Who came up with Materialism and what is it?
- Thomas Hobbes - That the mind is a product of the brain and that the soul is not involved with human behavior
- What is Empiricism?
- Knowledge and Intellect are acquired.
Sensory Experiences -> Elementary Ideas -> Complex thought and ideas
- What is Nativism?
- The view that elementary ideas are innate
- Who came up with Nature vs Nurture and what is it?
- When we decide if our abilities are determined by our genes or our experiences (Charles Darwin)
- Who is Edward Titchener?
- Wundts student
Professor at Cornell University
- Who is William James?
- He started Psychology at Harvard in the 1870's
- Who is Sigmund Freud?
- An Austrian physician who focused on illness.
+Psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders
- Who is Alfred Binet
- A french intelligence researcher who developed the first intelligence test
- Who is Ivan Pavlov?
- Russian physiologist who discovered conditioned reflexes
- Who is B.F Skinner?
- An American psychologist at Harvard who studied learning and the effect of reinforcement
- What started Psychology?
- Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig
- What is introspection?
- Looking in to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
- What is functionalism?
- Focused on how behavioral processes function and enable organisms to adapt, survive and flourish (James)
- What are the 2 parts of psychology?
- The science of behavior and mental processes
- What is the theory of natural selection?
- +Physical characteristics evolve from natural selection
+Behavioral patterns influence selection
+Inborn knowledge and behavioral tendences with survival value are passed on
- Who came up with the theory of natural selection and what did it do?
- Charles Darwin
- It encouraged scientific inquiry
- What is reflexology?
- All human behaviors occur through reflexes
- What is the neuroscience perspective?
- How the body and brain enables emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
- What is the Evolutionary perspective?
- How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes
- What is the Behavior Genetics perspective?
- How much our genes and environment influence our individual differences
- What is the Psychodynamic perspective?
- How our behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
- What is the Behavioral perspective?
- How we learn observable responses
- What is the Cognitive perspective?
- How we encode, process, store and retrieve info
- What is the Social - cultural perspective?
- How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
- What is the difference between basic research and applied research
- Basic research aims to increase the knowledge base and Applied research aims to solve practical problems
- What is clinical psychology?
- A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
- What is Psychiatry?
- A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders
- What are some areas of specialization of Psychology?
- abnormal behavior/psych. disorders
- psych. factors in physical health
- guidance for normal life situations
- What are some other areas of specialization?
- Developmental, School, Educational, Psychobiology, Experimental, Cognitive, IO, Personality
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