Glossary of Psych Final 2

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List the 4 major goals in the study of human development.
Description-describe in words
Explanation-explain parts of development
Predict-how a person will develop
Modify-behavior to encourage development
Changes in body, brain, sensory capacities, and motor skills are part of the ____________ aspect of development.
Changes in a variety of mental abilities such as learning, memory, reasoning, language are part of _____________ development.
Give an example of a normative age-graded influence.
When 5 year olds start school it as a normative age-graded influence because most children of that age are starting school as well.
Choose one developmental theory described in the text and explain the following a)basic beliefs of theory, b)whether it views development as continuous or occurring in stages.
Freud theorized that development is dependent on the subconcious and it controls behavior.
He believed that development stopped at age 12. (not continuous)
What perspective?
Child aggression increases when kids are trying to be part of a peer group that values aggressive conduct.
What perspective?
Aggressive behavior in children increases when children see adults repeatedly display aggression and get away with it.
What perspective?
Aggressive behavior is the outward expression of unconscious inner conflicts involving anger, guilt, and shame.
What perspective?
Child aggression can be caused by chemical deficiencies in areas of the brain responsible for inhibiting aggressive behavior.
What perspective?
Aggressive behavior reflects fixation at a stage of reasoning characterized by self-centered non-empathic thinking.
There is a correlation between hours of exposure to tv violence and children being identified as more or less aggressive. What kind of correlation is it? Does is prove that exposure to tv violence causes aggression?
No. correlation just shows a relationship, not that one variable causes another.
Explain the concept of risk factors.
Describe how risk factors for a problem are identified.
Situations that have a negative influence on development.
Identified by comparing the individual to other people who have normal development and seeing poverty, lack of 2 parent home, etc.
Explain the concept of critical period as it is used in human development.
A time in a persons life where the presence or absence of an event has an affect on development.
Decribe the cross-sectional research design.
A test group of people of different ages to show similarities and differences among the group.
List one disadvantage of cross-sectional research design.
Researchers will never know if the reaction the subjects have will change over time.
Explain why a genetic disorder transmitted by recessive inheritance is able to skip generations and then suddenly reappear.
There are 2 genes (alleles) for each trait. The dominant gene will express the trait.
Explain how a genetic disorder is transmitted thru sex-linked inheritance.
The x chromosome of the mother carries the disorder and it can show up differently in her male and female children.
Explain the content and use of apgar scale in neonatal assessment.
Appearance, Pulse
Grimace, Activity
The total score tells how healthy a baby is at birth.
During the first year of infancy the human brain gains 45% of its adult weight. Explain what is occurring in the brain that accounts for this weight.
Almost all the neurons are formed at birth. During the first year, connections are being formed that make the whole brain able to communicate with all parts. The new connections cause the weight gain.
Explain the top to bottom principle of development in infancy.
The brain and head grow and develop very fast. It is obvious in the fact that the babie's head looks very large compared to its body. As the infant gets older, development occurs more in the body or motor areas.
What is meant by the term infant-parent attachment and what are some long-term effects of infant-parent attachment patterns.
Secure attachment-content
Later-easily leaves caregiver
Avoidant attachment-not content
Later-child is clingy when older
Disorganized - different responses
Later-child is clingy when older
Explain why automony and socialization are important developmentan issues in the toddler period.
Autonomy give the child confidence. Learns care and feeding of self.
Socializaiton-process of developing the habits, skills, values and motives shared by responsible, productive members of a particular society.
In middle childhood, explain one advance in thinking ability associated with piaget's stage of concrete operations.
In middle childhood (age 7-12) children begin to develop logical - but not abstract thinking.
How do school-age children develop a realistic self-concept?
They gather information from their peers and family. They learn skills that will be useful in life.
Describe one category of learning disorder and explain research findings regarding heritability in this category of disorders.
Attention Deficit Disorder-child has difficulty concentrating. Can be hereditary - mostly found in males.
Describe the psychological issues in early vs. late maturation for boys and girls.
Boys - early - more confident, leader
Boys - late - self conscious, unsure
Girls - early - socially backward
Girls - late - more outgoing
Describe the issues Erikson believed must be resolved for adolescents to establish their own identity.
Sexual orientation
Career goals
World views and values
Marcias four categores of identity status.
Achievement-crisis - commitment
Foreclosure - no crisis - commitment
Moratorium - crisis - no commitment
Confusion - no crisis - no commitment
Explain Baumrinds 3 main parenting styles and describe the impact of these styles on adolescent identity issues.
Authoritarian. Parents want control. Adol. trouble forming identity.
Permissive-kids make decisions. Adol. lost with no direction
Authoritative-warmth, social behavior, dif. discipline. Adol. well adjusted.
Adult development. One researh study which supports the position that personality stays the same as one grows older.
Costa and McCrae. Five Factor Theory.
Open to new experience
In adult development, cite one research study which supports the position that personality changes and grows as people grow older.
Block - Ego Resiliance - People grow in resiliance as they age.
Explain the concept of postformal thought and sinnotts criteria for post formal thought.
A higher stage of adult cognition. Ability to deal with uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection and compromise.
Shifting gears, multiple causality, multiple solutions, pragmatism, awareness of paradox.
Concerning young adulthood.
Explain the results of Marcia's reserach on identity status and its impact on close relationship issues.
Identity achievement. Capable of intimate relationships.
Identity foreclosure-close family ties.
Identity moratorium-headed for a mate
Identity confusion-lonely superficial relationships.
Young adulthood. Describe one research which supports continuity of personality in adulthood.
Costa and McCrae
Neuroticism, Open to new experience,
Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion.
Concerning middle adulthood, Describe one physical change in mid-life that represents primary aging.
Presbyopia - a lessened ability to focus on near objects
Explain Jung's theory of healthy adjustment to mid-life.
Need individuation - the emergence of the true self throught balancing or ingetrating conflicting parts of the personality. You must give up the image of youth and acknowledge mortality.
Typical patterns of marital satisfaction.
U-shaped curve. Happy, unhappy, happy.
In middle adulthood.
Describe one physical decline in the CNS which is currently believed to reflect primary aging.
Brain matter is lost starting at age 30 and at age 90, 10% of the weight of the brain is lost.
In later adulthood, explain Erikson's concept of Ego Integrity.
An achievement based on reflection about one's life. Older adults evaluate, sum up, and accept their lives so as to accept the approach of death.
Describe one typical change pattern that occurs with adult intelligence in old age.
In Baltes's dual process model, the abilities to process information and solve problems has age-related decline.
Concerning end of life, describe the typical stages of the grieving process.
Shock and disbelief
Preoccupation with the memory of the dead person.
Explain why Piaget describes the first 2 years of human infancy as a sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
During the first 2 years of life, an infant basically takes in information through its senses and by moving around in its environment. By this, he is learning.

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