Glossary of Psych Final: Chapter 7

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the process of aquiring information and entering it into memory
acoustic encoding
the mental representation of information as images
visual encoding
the mental representation of information as images
the process od maintaining information in memory over time
the preocess of recalling informantion stored in memory
episodic memory
memory of an event that happened while one was present
semantic memory
a type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world; facts
ex. 32 degrees is room temp.
procedural memory
a type of memory containing information about how to do things
explicit memory
the process in which people try to remember something
implicit memory
the unintentional influence of prior experiences
levels-of-processing model
a view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incomming information is mentally processed
sensory memory- short-term memory- long term memory
maintenance rehersal
one of 2 types of mental rehersal; repeating information over and over to keep it active in short term memory
elaborative rehersal
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information related to old information in long term memory
transfer-appropriate processing model
a model of memory that suggests that a critical determinant of memory is how well the retrival process matches the encoding process
information-processing model
A model of memory in which information is seen as passing through sensory memory, short-term and long term-memory
sensory memory
a type of memory that holds large amounts of incomming information very briefly, but long enough to connect one impression to the next
sensory registers
act as storage bins; hold incomming information long enough for it to be processes futher
selective attention
the focusing of mental resources on only part of the stimulous field
short-term memory
the maintenance component of working memory which holds unrehearsed information for a limited time
working memory
the part of the memory system that allows us to mentally work with, minipulate information being held in short term memory
immediate memory span
the maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after once presentation of all the idems ( about 6 or 7)
Stimuli that are precieved as one unit or as a meaningful grouping of information
Brown Peterson procedure
A method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short term memory
long term memory
a relatively long lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited
primacy effect
a characteristic of memory inwhich recall of the first two or three items in a list are particularly good
regency effect
a characteristic of memory in which recal is particularlty good for the last few items in the list
retrieval clues
stimuli that aid the recall or recognition of information stored in memory
encoding specificity principal
a principal stating that the ability of a cue to aid retrieval depends on the degree to which it it taps information that was encoded at the time of original learning
context-dependent memory
memory that can be helped or hindered by simularities or differences between the context in which it is learned and the context in which it is recalled
state-dependency memory
memory that is aided or impeded by a personal internal state
spreading activation
a principal that explains how information is retrived in semantic netword theories of memory
Mental representations of categories of objects, events, and people
method of saving
measuring forgeting by computing the difference between the number of repitions need to learn and after a delay relearn the same material
the gradual disappearance of the mental representation of a stimulous
the process through which either the storage or the retrieval of information is impared by the oresence of other information
retroactive interference
a cause of forgitting in which new information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information already in memory
proactive interference
a cause of forgetting in which information already is memory interferes with the ability to remember new information
anterograde amnesia
a loss of memory for any event that occurs after a brain injusy
retrograde amnesia
the loss of memory for event prior to a brain injury- can't remember weeks, months years before the injury
strategies for placing information in an organized context in order to remember it
Serial position effects
generally we remember the first several items and last several items
a structure in the forebrain associated with the formation of new memories
A structure in the forebrain that regulates hunger, thrist, and sex drive
a structure in the fore brain that associates features of stimuli from two sensory modalities
Semantic Encoding
the meaning of experiences of factual information in memory
ex. kids in other countries know the words to songs but not the meaning

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